2015 verđur 3ja heitasta áriđ...

 

 

UAH_LT_1979_thru_November_2015_v6

 

 

 

Nýlega hafa veriđ birtar niđurstöđur gervihnattamćlinga á hnattrćnum lofthita til loka nóvember, eins og sjá má á myndinni efst á síđunni. Lengst til hćgri má sjá hitatoppinn sem er ađ myndast vegna El Nińo í Kyrrahafinu, en sams konar fyrirbćri má sjá árin 1998 og 2010. Sjá hér.

 

Hitamćlingar frá gervihnöttum hafa ţađ sér til ágćtis ađ mćlt er yfir nánast alla jörđina, lönd og höf, fjöll og firnindi, eyđimerkur og byggđ ból. Mćlingarnar láta ekki truflast af hitauppsöfnun í ţéttbýli og borgum, og eru ađ margra áliti ţćr traustustu sem gerđar eru. Úrvinnsla mćligagna eru gerđar hjá University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) og Remote Sensing Systems (RSS). 

 

Dr. Roy Spencer sem sér um úrvinnslu mćligagna hjá UAH hefur rađađ heitustu árunum samkvćmt gervihnattamćlingunum í stólparitiđ hér fyrir neđan. Samkvćmt ţví er áriđ 1998 heitast, nćst heitast er 2010 og núna stefnir áriđ 2015 í ađ verđa ţriđja heitasta áriđ.

Munurinn milli ţessara ára er ţađ afgerandi ađ niđurstöđur fyrir desember geta ekki haft nein áhrif á röđina.

Sumar súlurnar eru litađar, en ţađ eru svokölluđ El Nińo ár ţegar fyrirbćri í kyrrahafinu losar mikinn varma í lofthjúpinn. Roy Spencer hefur veriđ ađ dunda viđ ađ reyna ađ gera sér grein fyrir hvernig áriđ 2016 muni verđa (grćna spurningamerkiđ) međ ţví ađ skođa eldri ár sem liggja ađ El Nińo árum. Örvarnar milli lituđu súlannna eiga ađ tákna ţađ.  Sjá hér.

Áriđ 1998 var óvenju hlýtt. Sama var ekki ađ segja um nćstu ár á eftir, og ţví er ekki hćgt ađ reikna međ ađ 2016 verđi hlýtt. Ţađ er ţó ekki útiokađ ef El Nińo verđur sćmilega virkt fyrstu mánuđi ársins.

 

 

 

UAH-LT-El-Nino-year-rankings1

 

 

 

Til samanburđar er hér fyrir neđan RSS (Remote Sensing Systems) útgáfan af gervihnattamćlingum á fráviki frá međaltali áranna 1979-2008 í hita lofthjúps jarđar frá árinu 1979 til loka nóvember 2015.

Mćligögnin eru r á vef RSS tilbúin til ađ setja í Excel ef einhver skyldi vilja teikna ferla eđa rađa árunum í röđ eftir međalhita.

 

MSU RSS GlobalMonthlynov2015

 

 

 

 

 


Eiga sér stađ loftslagsbreytingar af mannavöldum...?

 

 

 

Loftslagsbreytingar af mannnavöldum

 

Úr Viđskiptablađinu 13. desember 2006

 

Fyrir um áratug var stutt viđtal viđ ţessa vísindamenn sem teljast verđa vera međal ţeirra reyndustu á sviđi veđur- og loftslagsfrćđa hér á landi.

Ţór: "Um er ađ rćđa samspil margra ţátta sem gerir máliđ flókiđ".

Trausti: "Máliđ er flókiđ og margţćtt og erfitt ađ fullyrđa niokkuđ um ţađ".

Páll Bergţórsson, okkar allra reyndasti og virtasti veđurfrćđingur, er sama sinnis
og hefur birt áhugaverđar kenningar um áhrif hafíssins á svokallađa 60 ára sveiflu.

Allir eru ţessir vísindamenn sammála um ađ ţađ hafi hlýnađ á undanförnum áratugum,
losun á koltvíildi hafi aukist verulega, en ekki sé hćgt ađ kenna styrk
koltvíildis eingöngu um breytingar í hitafari, ţó svo ađ áhrif ţess séu einhver.

 

 

 



Leidretting NASA Moggi

 

Úr Morgunblađinu í dag 3. desember 2015

 

 

 

 

 

Eldri bloggpistlar sem fjalla um raunverulega "manngerđa hlýnun":

Hvers vegna er NASA ađ afmynda hitaferilinn fyrir Reykjavík...?

 

Kann einhver skil á ţessum undarlegheitum...?

 

 



gisssurface1001vs2014

NASA - GISS


Hvađ er eđlilegt veđurfar...?

 

 ChristmasCarol (1)

Christmas Carol eđa Jólaćvintýri eftir Charles Dickens kom út um miđja 19. öld,
en ţá var 0,8 gráđum kaldara en í dag.
Sagan gerist á síđustu áratugum Litlu ísaldar.



Er loftslag eđlilegt eins og ţađ var fyrir 100 til 150 árum?  Ţađ felst í kenningunni um skađlegar loftslagsbreytingar, ţ.e. hlýnun frá ţessu tímabili.   Jörđin hefur hlýnađ um 0,75 gráđur.

Í ţessu felst einnig ađ loftslag hafi veriđ eđlilegt á ţeim tíma međan losun manna á koltvísýringi var enn óveruleg.

 

hadcrut4_annual_global
Breska veđurstofan Met Office: Hnattrćnar breytingar á hita frá 1850 til 2013. Síđustu áratugir 19. aldar tilheyra Litlu ísöldinni svokölluđu.
Takiđ eftir grönnu strigunum sem ganga upp og niđur úr hverjum mćlipunkti. Ţau tákna óvissubil ţess punkts. Lengst til hćgri er óvissubiliđ +/-0,1, en lengst til vinstri +/-0,2.

 

Samkvćmt mćlingum er taliđ ađ hitastig jarđar hafi hćkkađ um ţví sem nćst 0,75°C síđan um 1850. Kannski er ţađ 0,8° afrúnnađ, en ţađ skiptir litlu máli ţví óvissumörkin eru samkvćmt ferlinum +/- 0,2°. Hvers vegna 1850?  Jú ţađ er vegna ţess ađ sćmilega áreiđanlegar eldri mćlingar á lofthita eru ekki til. Ţá var Litlu ísöldinni ekki lokiđ. Verulegur hluti ţessa tímabils, um ţađ bil hálf öld, tilheyrir Litlu ísöldinni. Skekkir ţađ ekki ađeins myndina?  "Frá upphafi iđnbyltingar (um 1750) hefur hlýnađ á jörđinni" má lesa á Vísindavefnum. Sé ţessi tími notađur sem viđmiđ, ţá tilheyra hvorki meira ná minna en 150 ár Litlu ísöldinni! 

Menn hafa af ţví miklar áhyggjur ađ međalhiti jarđar hafi hćkkađ um ţví sem nćst 0,8 gráđur á 150 árum? Hver vill fullyrđa ađ um 1850, á síđustu áratugum Litlu ísaldar, hafi veđurfar veriđ “rétt” og öll hćkkun hita síđan ţá sé “röng” og hćttuleg?   Ţađ merkilega er ađ ţetta er kjarninn í umrćđunni um loftslagsmálin.

(Ađeins er á reiki viđ hvađa tíma hitahćkkunin er miđuđ. Stundum 1860, stundum 1880 og stundum 1910. Í ţessu sambandi skiptir ţađ ekki máli, ţví allt eru ţetta tímar sem tilheyra kuldatímabili Litlu ísaldar eins og greinilegt er ef myndin er skođuđ. Ţađ eru einnig skiptar skođanir um ţađ hvenćr Litlu ísöldinni lauk.   Íslenskir jöklar gengu lengst fram á tímabilinu 1890-1920, sjá hér. Sumir miđa viđ 1850, en ađrir ekki fyrr en 1920).

Viđ sjáum greinilega á hitaferlinum frá Bresku Veđurstofunni ađ Litlu Ísöldinni lýkur ekki fyrr en um 1920, ţá verđur mjög hröđ hlýnun fram ađ 1945, síđan kyrrstađa til um 1975 er hitinn fer ađ rísa hratt til ársins 2000, og ađ lokum kyrrstađa til dagsins í dag.

Eftirtektarvert er ađ á tímabilinu 1920 til 1945 er álíka hröđ og álíka mikil hćkkun á hitastigi og á tímabilinu 1975 til 2000. Hvort tveggja 25 ára tímabil. Ţađ er umhugsunarvert ađ losun manna á koltvísýringi var tiltölulega lítil fyrr en eftir miđja síđustu öld er losunin fór hratt vaxandi. Sjá línuritiđ međ CO2 hér fyrir neđan. Ţađ flćkir auđvitađ máliđ dálítiđ.  Var ţađ kannski náttúran sem var ađ verki á fyrra tímabilinu og mannfólkiđ á hinu síđara?  Eđa á náttúran einhvern ţátt í hitabreytingunum yfir allt tímabiliđ? 

 

Viđ tökum eftir ţví á myndinni frá Bresku veđurstofunni (Met Office) hér fyrir ofan ađ međalhitinn yfir allt tímabiliđ er nokkurn vegin sá sami og mćldist í kyrrstöđunni 1945-1975. Reyndar er lárétta línan viđ 0,0°C örlítiđ ofar.  Vćri ekki eđlilegra ađ miđa hćkkun lofthitans viđ ţađ tímabil frekar en Litlu Ísöldina eins og gert er?  Ţá vćri hćkkunin sem viđ vćrum međ áhyggjur af um ţađ bil 0,5° í stađ 0,8°. Ţađ munar um minna.  Svo er ekki útilokađ ađ einhver hluti ţessara 0,5 gráđa séu eđlilegar sveiflur í náttúrunni.

 

Í fyrirsögn ţessa pistils stendur: Hvađ er eđlilegt veđurfar?  Er ţađ eins og ţađ er í dag, eins og um miđja síđustu öld, eđa eins og á tímum Charles Dickens?

Svo virđist sem margir (flestir?) vilji ađ hnattrćnt loftslag verđi aftur eins og ţađ var á síđustu áratugum Litlu ísaldar, ţ.e. á ţeim árum sem fjöldi Íslendinga hélt til vesturheims í leit ađ betra lífi, en ţađ er önnur saga...

 

CO2-1750 (1)
Styrkur koltvísýrings (CO2) í andrúmsloftinu síđan áriđ 1750.

 

 

 
 
Ađ lokum er til hliđsjónar ferill sem sýnir hitafar síđustu 2000 ára. (Loehle 2008):

hitafar-jardar-2000-ar_876926

 

 

 


mbl.is „Ţađ er ekkert plan B“
Tilkynna um óviđeigandi tengingu viđ frétt

Ólafur Jóhann Ólafsson: Betra efni í forseta get ég ekki hugsađ mér...

 

 

 

OlafurJohannOlafsson2011JPVsvhv

 

Einn er sá mađur sem gćti veriđ mikill fengur ađ fá sem forseta Íslands.
Ţađ er Ólafur Jóhann Ólafsson rithöfundur međ meiru.

Hann lauk prófi međ láđi sem eđlisfrćđingur frá Brandeis University í útjađri Boston í Bandaríkjunum 1985.  Hann hóf störf hjá Sony í Bandaríkjunum strax ađ loknu námi. Tíu árum síđar var hann kjörinn ađstođarforstjóri fyrirtćkisins og forstjóri margmiđlunardeildar ţess. Áriđ 1996 hóf hann störf hjá fjárfestingarfyrirtćkinu Advanta og var síđan ráđinn annar tveggja yfirmanna Time Warner Digital Media 1999.

Ólafur Jóhann var mikill námsmađur og miklum metum hjá prófessorum Brandeis háskólans, enda komst hann strax ađ námi loknu til metorđa hjá stórfyrirtćkjum. Ólafur er eins og flestir vita einnig ţekktur rithöfundur og međ einstaklega góđa framkomu. Hann er jafnvígur á raunvísindi og hugvísindi. Betra efni í forseta get ég varla hugsađ mér.

Nánar um Ólaf Jóhann hér:

 

 

 

Myndin af Ólafi Jóhanni var fengin ađ láni međ bessaleyfi af vef Forlagsins. Ég vona mér fyrirgefist ađ hafa ekki beđiđ um leyfi. Textinn ber ţess vćntanlega merki ađ hafa ađ hluta veriđ fenginn ađ láni á sömu kjörum af vefjum Borgarbókasafnsins og Forlagsins.   

www.forlagiđ.is

  

 

 


"Heil­mik­il haf­ísmynd­un og ís­inn nálg­ast..."

 

Ţađ er auđvitađ sjálfsagt ađ fylgjast međ landsins forna fjarna.
Enn sem komiđ er heldur hann sig fjarri, en hver veit hvernig stađan verđur á nćstu árum...?

Myndirnar eru frá Dönsku veđurstofunni DMI.

icecover_current 20nov2015

 http://ocean.dmi.dk/arctic/old_icecover.uk.php

icecover_current 20nov2015-crop

Klippt úr efstu myndinni

 

 icecover_current_new

http://ocean.dmi.dk/arctic/icecover.uk.php

 

Uppfćrt 25. nóvember: Í dag birtist loksins nýr ferill á vef DMI eftir 12 daga hlé. Hann er dagsettur 24/11/15. Ferillinn sem var orđinn vikugamall ţegar pistillinn var skrifađur 20. nóvember hefur ţví veriđ uppfćrđur.

Sjá nýjustu útgáfu beggja ferlanna međ ţví ađ smella á krćkjurnar undir ţeim.

Uppfćrt 22. nóvember: Myndin hér ađ ofan hefur veriđ óbreytt hjá DMI síđan 13/11/15, sem bendir til einhverrar bilunar.

 

Hafis

Frétt Morgunblađsins 20. nóvember 2015

 


mbl.is Hafísinn nálgast
Tilkynna um óviđeigandi tengingu viđ frétt

Jřrgen Peder Steffensen hjá Niels Bohr Institute: Hlýrra á Grćnlandi fyrir árţúsundi en í dag og ómögulegt ađ dćma um hvort hlýindin nú séu náttúruleg eđa af mannavöldum...

 

 

 

 

Jřrgen Peder Steffensen jarđeđlisfrćđingur og lektor hjá Niels Bohr Institutet, Křbenhavns Universitet fjallar í ţessu stutta en fróđlega myndbandi um rannsóknir á borkjörnum frá Grćnlandsjökli.

Dr. Jřrgen Peder Steffensen hefur međal annars starfađ mikiđ međ íslenska eđlis- og jöklafrćđingnum  Dr. Sigfúsi Johnsen.

Hann frćđir okkur međal annars á ţví ađ fyrir árţúsundi hafi hitinn á Grćnlandi veriđ 1,5 gráđum hćrri en í dag, og ađ mjög erfitt sé ađ sýna fram á hvort núverndi hlýindi stafi af mannavöldum eđa eigi sér náttúrulegar orsakir.

Myndbandiđ er 4 mínútur ađ lengd.  Ţađ er fróđlegt ađ heyra hvađ ţessi virti vísindamađur hefur ađ segja.

 

 

- Fyrir árţúsundi var hitinn á Grćnlandi 1,5 gráđum hćrri en í dag.

- Hann var ef til vill 2.5 C hćrri fyrir 4000 árum.

- Rannsóknir víđar í heiminum styđja ţessa mynd.

- Mjög erfitt ađ sýna fram á hvort núverndi hlýindi stafi af mannavöldum eđa eigi sér náttúrulegar orsakir

 

 

lev42_central_topbanner  


Hafísinn minnir á sig. Meiri en síđustu ár...

 

DMI-icecover_current-20oct2015

 

DMI-icecover_current-20oct2015-cropcrop

 

 

Á myndinni má sjá útbreiđslu hafíss á norđurslóđum í dag 20. október. Eins og sjá má á svarta ferlinum mćlist útbreiđslan meiri en flest síđastliđin 10 ár.

Neđri myndin er stćkkuđ úrklippa úr ţeirri efri.

Ferillinn er frá Hafísdeild  Dönsku Veđurstofunnar DMI, en ţar birtist daglega nýr ferill.

Ţađ er greinilegt eins og stađan er í dag, ađ hafísinn er ekkert ađ hverfa. Ferillinn gefur ţó ekki neina vísbendingu um ţróun nćstu daga, mánuđi eđa ár, en fróđlegt verđur ađ fylgjast međ hvađ er á seyđi međ ţví ađ smella r og hér.

Ef viđ rýnum í ferlana ţá sjáum viđ ţó ađ bráđnunartímabiliđ undanfarna mánuđi virđist styttra en önnur undanfarinn áratug, lágmarkiđ í byrjun september fyrr  á ferđinni og aukningin undanfarnar vikur hrađari en áđur miđađ viđ ferla síđustu 10 ára. Kannski bara tilviljun?

 

Ţykkt hafíssins skiptir líka máli. Á nćstu mynd sést ađ nú (rauđi ferillinn) er ţykktin meiri en 2004, 2009, 2010, 2011 og 2013.

Heimild: Polar Science Center hér.

Bpiomas_plot_daily_heff.2sst

 

Sjálfsagt kjósa flestir ađ hafísinn verđi sem minnstur og alls ekki ađ hann gerist nćrgöngull viđ okkur eins og síđast gerđist á hafísárunum um 1970.  En er ţađ nú alveg víst ađ viđ getum stólađ á ađ siglingar um norđuríshafiđ verđi raunhćfar og ađ umskipunarhöfn í Finnafirđi verđi ađ veruleika?  Er alveg víst ađ landsins forni fjandi heimsćki okkur ekki einhvern tíman á nćstu árum? Spyr sá sem ekki veit...

   

 


Mögnuđ rćđa Dr. Patrick Moore stofnanda Greenpeace...

 

 

 

Dr. Patrick Moore umhverfisfrćđingur, stofnandi Greenpeace, hélt í síđustu viku magnađan fyrirlestur.  Myndband er hér fyrir neđan, en prentađa útgáfu má lesa neđar á síđunni eđa međ ţví ađ smella hér.  

Dr. Patrick Moore var mjög virkur aktívisti á yngri árum, međal annars á skipinu Rainbow Warrior sem viđ munum flest eftir. 

Svo áttađi hann sig á ađ hann og félagar hans vćru á villigötum og snéri viđ blađinu...

Patrick Moore rćđir hér uppvaxtarár sín og skólagöngu og ţá tíma sem hann starfađi međ Greenpeace eftir ađ hann tók ţátt í stofnun samtakanna, svo og hvers vegna hann yfirgaf samtökin. Síđan fjallar hann um koltvísýring jarđsögunni og bendir á ýmsar jákvćđar hliđar málsins, en koltvísýringur er undirstađa alls lífs á jörđinni.  

Ţetta er einkar fróđlegt og vel ţess virđi ađ hlusta. Óneitanlega umhugsunarverđur vinkill á máliđ.



Mögnuđ rćđa hlađin skynsemi:  "Should We Celebrate Carbon Dioxide?

 

(Sjá annađ myndband neđst á síđunni).

   

 

 

 

 

Hér er gömul vefsíđa frá Greenpeace. 

The Founders of Greenpeace

Patrick Moore er annar frá vinstri í efri röđ á myndinni á ţessari gömlu Greenpeace vefsíđu, sem er afrituđ hér fyrir neđan. 

 

  

 

 

crew-of-the-phyllis-cormack-f

 

 

 

 

Kjósi einhver ađ lesa frekar en ađ horfa, ţá er fyrirlesturinn eđa rćđan frá 14. október 2015 hér í heild sinni:

 

My Lords and Ladies, Ladies and Gentlemen.

Thank you for the opportunity to set out my views on climate change. As I have stated publicly on many occasions, there is no definitive scientific proof, through real-world observation, that carbon dioxide is responsible for any of the slight warming of the global climate that has occurred during the past 300 years, since the peak of the Little Ice Age. If there were such a proof through testing and replication it would have been written down for all to see.

The contention that human emissions are now the dominant influence on climate is simply a hypothesis, rather than a universally accepted scientific theory. It is therefore correct, indeed verging on compulsory in the scientific tradition, to be skeptical of those who express certainty that “the science is settled” and “the debate is over”.

But there is certainty beyond any doubt that CO2 is the building block for all life on Earth and that without its presence in the global atmosphere at a sufficient concentration this would be a dead planet. Yet today our children and our publics are taught that CO2 is a toxic pollutant that will destroy life and bring civilization to its knees. Tonight I hope to turn this dangerous human-caused propaganda on its head. Tonight I will demonstrate that human emissions of CO2 have already saved life on our planet from a very untimely end. That in the absence of our emitting some of the carbon back into the atmosphere from whence it came in the first place, most or perhaps all life on Earth would begin to die less than two million years from today.

 

But first a bit of background.

I was born and raised in the tiny floating village of Winter Harbour on the northwest tip of Vancouver Island, in the rainforest by the Pacific. There was no road to my village so for eight years myself and a few other children were taken by boat each day to a one-room schoolhouse in the nearby fishing village. I didn’t realize how lucky I was playing on the tide flats by the salmon-spawning streams in the rainforest, until I was sent off to boarding school in Vancouver where I excelled in science. I did my undergraduate studies at the University of British Columbia, gravitating to the life sciences – biology, biochemistry, genetics, and forestry – the environment and the industry my family has been in for more than 100 years. Then, before the word was known to the general public, I discovered the science of ecology, the science of how all living things are inter-related, and how we are related to them. At the height of the Cold War, the Vietnam War, the threat of all-out nuclear war and the newly emerging consciousness of the environment I was transformed into a radical environmental activist. While doing my PhD in ecology in 1971 I joined a group of activists who had begun to meet in the basement of the Unitarian Church, to plan a protest voyage against US hydrogen bomb testing in Alaska.

We proved that a somewhat rag-tag looking group of activists could sail an old fishing boat across the north Pacific ocean and help change the course of history. We created a focal point for the media to report on public opposition to the tests.

When that H-bomb exploded in November 1971, it was the last hydrogen bomb the United States ever detonated. Even though there were four more tests planned in the series, President Nixon canceled them due to the public opposition we had helped to create. That was the birth of Greenpeace.

Flushed with victory, on our way home from Alaska we were made brothers of the Namgis Nation in their Big House at Alert Bay near my northern Vancouver Island home. For Greenpeace this began the tradition of the Warriors of the Rainbow, after a Cree Indian legend that predicted the coming together of all races and creeds to save the Earth from destruction. We named our ship the Rainbow Warrior and I spent the next fifteen years in the top committee of Greenpeace, on the front lines of the environmental movement as we evolved from that church basement into the world’s largest environmental activist organization.

Next we took on French atmospheric nuclear testing in the South Pacific. They proved a bit more difficult than the US nuclear tests. It took years to eventually drive these tests underground at Mururoa Atoll in French Polynesia. In 1985, under direct orders from President Mitterrand, French commandos bombed and sank the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland Harbour, killing our photographer. Those protests continued until long after I left Greenpeace. It wasn’t until the mid-1990s that nuclear testing finally ended in the South Pacific, and it most other parts of the world as well.

Going back to 1975, Greenpeace set out to save the whales from extinction at the hands of huge factory whaling fleets.  We confronted the Soviet factory whaling fleet in the North Pacific, putting ourselves in front of their harpoons in our little rubber boats to protect the fleeing whales. This was broadcast on television news around the world, bringing the Save the Whales movement into everyone’s living rooms for the first time. After four years of voyages, in 1979 factory whaling was finally banned in the North Pacific, and by 1981 in all the world’s oceans.

In 1978 I sat on a baby seal off the East Coast of Canada to protect it from the hunter’s club. I was arrested and hauled off to jail, the seal was clubbed and skinned, but a photo of me being arrested while sitting on the baby seal appeared in more than 3000 newspapers around the world the next morning. We won the hearts and minds of millions of people who saw the baby seal slaughter as outdated, cruel, and unnecessary.

Why then did I leave Greenpeace after 15 years in the leadership? When Greenpeace began we had a strong humanitarian orientation, to save civilization from destruction by all-out nuclear war. Over the years the “peace” in Greenpeace was gradually lost and my organization, along with much of the environmental movement, drifted into a belief that humans are the enemies of the earth. I believe in a humanitarian environmentalism because we are part of nature, not separate from it. The first principle of ecology is that we are all part of the same ecosystem, as Barbara Ward put it, “One human family on spaceship Earth”, and to preach otherwise teaches that the world would be better off without us. As we shall see later in the presentation there is very good reason to see humans as essential to the survival of life on this planet.

In the mid 1980s I found myself the only director of Greenpeace International with a formal education in science. My fellow directors proposed a campaign to “ban chlorine worldwide”, naming it “The Devil’s Element”. I pointed out that chlorine is one of the elements in the Periodic Table, one of the building blocks of the Universe and the 11th most common element in the Earth’s crust. I argued the fact that chlorine is the most important element for public health and medicine. Adding chlorine to drinking water was the biggest advance in the history of public health and the majority of our synthetic medicines are based on chlorine chemistry. This fell on deaf ears, and for me this was the final straw. I had to leave.

When I left Greenpeace I vowed to develop an environmental policy that was based on science and logic rather than sensationalism, misinformation, anti-humanism and fear. In a classic example, a recent protest led by Greenpeace in the Philippines used the skull and crossbones to associate Golden Rice with death, when in fact Golden Rice has the potential to help save 2 million children from death due to vitamin A deficiency every year.

 

The Keeling curve of CO2 concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere since 1959 is the supposed smoking gun of catastrophic climate change. We presume CO2 was at 280 ppm at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, before human activity could have caused a significant impact. I accept that most of the rise from 280 to 400 ppm is caused by human CO2 emissions with the possibility that some of it is due to outgassing from warming of the oceans.

NASA tells us that “Carbon Dioxide Controls Earth’s Temperature” in child-like denial of the many other factors involved in climate change. This is reminiscent of NASA’s contention that there might be life on Mars. Decades after it was demonstrated that there was no life on Mars, NASA continues to use it as a hook to raise public funding for more expeditions to the Red Planet. The promulgation of fear of Climate Change now serves the same purpose. As Bob Dylan prophetically pointed out, “Money doesn’t talk, it swears”, even in one of the most admired science organizations in the world.

On the political front the leaders of the G7 plan to “end extreme poverty and hunger” by phasing out 85% of the world’s energy supply including 98% of the energy used to transport people and goods, including food. The Emperors of the world appear clothed in the photo taken at the close of the meeting but it was obviously Photo-shopped. They should be required to stand naked for making such a foolish statement.

The world’s top climate body, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change, is hopelessly conflicted by its makeup and it mandate. The Panel is composed solely of the World Meteorological Organization, weather forecasters, and the United Nations Environment Program, environmentalists. Both these organizations are focused primarily on short-term timescales, days to maybe a century or two. But the most significant conflict is with the Panel’s mandate from the United Nations. They are required only to focus on “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the atmosphere, and which is in addition to natural climate variability.”
So if the IPCC found that climate change was not being affected by human alteration of the atmosphere or that it is not “dangerous” there would be no need for them to exist. They are virtually mandated to find on the side of apocalypse.

Scientific certainty, political pandering, a hopelessly conflicted IPCC, and now the Pope, spiritual leader of the Catholic Church, in a bold move to reinforce the concept of original sin, says the Earth looks like “an immense pile of filth” and we must go back to pre-industrial bliss, or is that squalor?

And then there is the actual immense pile of filth fed to us more than three times daily by the green-media nexus, a seething cauldron of imminent doom, like we are already condemned to Damnation in Hell and there is little chance of Redemption. I fear for the end of the Enlightenment. I fear an intellectual Gulag with Greenpeace as my prison guards.

 

Let’s begin with our knowledge of the long-term history of the Earth’s temperature and of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere. Our best inference from various proxies back indicate that CO2 was higher for the first 4 billion years of Earth’s history than it has been since the Cambrian Period until today. I will focus on the past 540 million years since modern life forms evolved. It is glaringly obvious that temperature and CO2 are in an inverse correlation at least as often as they are in any semblance of correlation. Two clear examples of reverse correlation occurred 150 million years and 50 million years ago. At the end of the Jurassic temperature fell dramatically while CO2 spiked. During the Eocene Thermal Maximum, temperature was likely higher than any time in the past 550 million years while CO2 had been on a downward track for 100 million years. This evidence alone sufficient to warrant deep speculation of any claimed lock-step causal relationship between CO2 and temperature.

The Devonian Period beginning 400 million years ago marked the culmination of the invasion of life onto the land. Plants evolved to produce lignin, which in combination with cellulose, created wood which in turn for the first time allowed plants to grow tall, in competition with each other for sunlight. As vast forests spread across the land living biomass increased by orders of magnitude, pulling down carbon as CO2 from the atmosphere to make wood. Lignin is very difficult to break down and no decomposer species possessed the enzymes to digest it. Trees died atop one another until they were 100 metres or more in depth. This was the making of the great coal beds around the world as this huge store of sequestered carbon continued to build for 90 million years. Then, fortunately for the future of life, white rot fungi evolved to produce the enzymes that can digest lignin and coincident with that the coal-making era came to an end.

There was no guarantee that fungi or any other decomposer species would develop the complex of enzymes required to digest lignin. If they had not, CO2, which had already been drawn down for the first time in Earth’s history to levels similar to todays, would have continued to decline as trees continued to grow and die. That is until CO2 approached the threshold of 150 ppm below which plants begin first to starve, then stop growing altogether, and then die. Not just woody plants but all plants. This would bring about the extinction of most, if not all, terrestrial species, as animals, insects, and other invertebrates starved for lack of food. And that would be that. The human species would never have existed. This was only the first time that there was a distinct possibility that life would come close to extinguishing itself, due to a shortage of CO2, which is essential for life on Earth.

A well-documented record of global temperature over the past 65 million years shows that we have been in a major cooling period since the Eocene Thermal Maximum 50 million years ago. The Earth was an average 16C warmer then, with most of the increased warmth at the higher latitudes. The entire planet, including the Arctic and Antarctica were ice-free and the land there was covered in forest. The ancestors of every species on Earth today survived through what may have been the warmest time in the history of life. It makes one wonder about dire predictions that even a 2C rise in temperature from pre-industrial times would cause mass extinctions and the destruction of civilization. Glaciers began to form in Antarctica 30 million years ago and in the northern hemisphere 3 million years ago. Today, even in this interglacial period of the Pleistocene Ice Age, we are experiencing one of the coldest climates in the Earth’s history.

Coming closer to the present we have learned from Antarctic ice cores that for the past 800,000 years there have been regular periods of major glaciation followed by interglacial periods in 100,000 year-cycles. These cycles coincide with the Milankovitch cycles that are tied to the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit and its axial tilt. It is highly plausible that these cycles are related to solar intensity and the seasonal distribution of solar heat on the Earth’s surface. There is a strong correlation between temperature and the level of atmospheric CO2 during these successive glaciations, indicating a possible cause-effect relationship between the two. CO2 lags temperature by an average of 800 years during the most recent 400,000-year period, indicating that temperature is the cause, as the cause never comes after the effect.

Looking at the past 50,000 years of temperature and CO2 we can see that changes in CO2 follow changes in temperature. This is as one could expect, as the Milankovitch cycles are far more likely to cause a change in temperature than a change in CO2. And a change in the temperature is far more likely to cause a change in CO2 due to outgassing of CO2 from the oceans during warmer times and an ingassing (absorption) of CO2 during colder periods. Yet climate alarmists persist in insisting that CO2 is causing the change in temperature, despite the illogical nature of that assertion.

 

It is sobering to consider the magnitude of climate change during the past 20,000 years, since the peak of the last major glaciation. At that time there were 3.3 kilometres of ice on top of what is today the city of Montreal, a city of more than 3 million people. 95% of Canada was covered in a sheet of ice. Even as far south as Chicago there was nearly a kilometre of ice. If the Milankovitch cycle continues to prevail, and there is little reason aside from our CO2 emissions to think otherwise, this will happen gradually again during the next 80,000 years. Will our CO2 emissions stave off another glaciation as James Lovelock has suggested? There doesn’t seem to be much hope of that so far, as despite 1/3 of all our CO2 emissions being released during the past 18 years the UK Met Office contends there has been no statistically significant warming during this century.

At the height of the last glaciation the sea level was about 120 metres lower than it is today. By 7,000 years ago all the low-altitude, mid-latitude glaciers had melted. There is no consensus about the variation in sea level since then although many scientists have concluded that the sea level was higher than today during the Holocene Thermal optimum from 9,000 to 5,000 years ago when the Sahara was green. The sea level may also have been higher than today during the Medieval Warm Period.

Hundred of islands near the Equator in Papua, Indonesia, have been undercut by the sea in a manner that gives credence to the hypothesis that there has been little net change in sea level in the past thousands of years. It takes a long time for so much erosion to occur from gentle wave action in a tropical sea.

Coming back to the relationship between temperature and CO2 in the modern era we can see that temperature has risen at a steady slow rate in Central England since 1700 while human CO2 emissions were not relevant until 1850 and then began an exponential rise after 1950. This is not indicative of a direct causal relationship between the two. After freezing over regularly during the Little Ice Age the River Thames froze for the last time in 1814, as the Earth moved into what might be called the Modern Warm Period.

 

The IPCC states it is “extremely likely” that human emissions have been the dominant cause of global warming “since the mid-20th century”, that is since 1950. They claim that “extremely” means 95% certain, even though the number 95 was simply plucked from the air like an act of magic. And “likely” is not a scientific word but rather indicative of a judgment, another word for an opinion.

There was a 30-year period of warming from 1910-1940, then a cooling from 1940 to 1970, just as CO2 emissions began to rise exponentially, and then a 30-year warming from 1970-2000 that was very similar in duration and temperature rise to the rise from 1910-1940. One may then ask “what caused the increase in temperature from 1910-1940 if it was not human emissions? And if it was natural factors how do we know that the same natural factors were not responsible for the rise between 1970-2000.” You don’t need to go back millions of years to find the logical fallacy in the IPCC’s certainty that we are the villains in the piece.

Water is by far the most important greenhouse gas, and is the only molecule that is present in the atmosphere in all three states, gas, liquid, and solid. As a gas, water vapour is a greenhouse gas, but as a liquid and solid it is not. As a liquid water forms clouds, which send solar radiation back into space during the day and hold heat in at night. There is no possibility that computer models can predict the net effect of atmospheric water in a higher CO2 atmosphere. Yet warmists postulate that higher CO2 will result in positive feedback from water, thus magnifying the effect of CO2 alone by 2-3 times. Other scientists believe that water may have a neutral or negative feedback on CO2. The observational evidence from the early years of this century tends to reinforce the latter hypothesis.

 

How many politicians or members of the media or the public are aware of this statement about climate change from the IPCC in 2007?

we should recognise that we are dealing with a coupled nonlinear chaotic system, and therefore that the long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible.

There is a graph showing that the climate models have grossly exaggerated the rate of warming that confirms the IPCC statement. The only trends the computer models seem able to predict accurately are ones that have already occurred.

 

Coming to the core of my presentation, CO2 is the currency of life and the most important building block for all life on Earth. All life is carbon-based, including our own. Surely the carbon cycle and its central role in the creation of life should be taught to our children rather than the demonization of CO2, that “carbon” is a “pollutant” that threatens the continuation of life. We know for a fact that CO2 is essential for life and that it must be at a certain level in the atmosphere for the survival of plants, which are the primary food for all the other species alive today. Should we not encourage our citizens, students, teachers, politicians, scientists, and other leaders to celebrate CO2 as the giver of life that it is?

It is a proven fact that plants, including trees and all our food crops, are capable of growing much faster at higher levels of CO2 than present in the atmosphere today. Even at the today’s concentration of 400 ppm plants are relatively starved for nutrition. The optimum level of CO2 for plant growth is about 5 times higher, 2000 ppm, yet the alarmists warn it is already too high. They must be challenged every day by every person who knows the truth in this matter. CO2 is the giver of life and we should celebrate CO2 rather than denigrate it as is the fashion today.

We are witnessing the “Greening of the Earth” as higher levels of CO2, due to human emissions from the use of fossil fuels, promote increased growth of plants around the world. This has been confirmed by scientists with CSIRO in Australia, in Germany, and in North America. Only half of the CO2 we are emitting from the use of fossil fuels is showing up in the atmosphere. The balance is going somewhere else and the best science says most of it is going into an increase in global plant biomass. And what could be wrong with that, as forests and agricultural crops become more productive?

All the CO2 in the atmosphere has been created by outgassing from the Earth’s core during massive volcanic eruptions. This was much more prevalent in the early history of the Earth when the core was hotter than it is today. During the past 150 million years there has not been enough addition of CO2 to the atmosphere to offset the gradual losses due to burial in sediments.

 

Let’s look at where all the carbon is in the world, and how it is moving around.

Today, at just over 400 ppm CO2 there are 850 billion tons of CO2 in the atmosphere. By comparison, when modern life-forms evolved over 500 million years ago there was nearly 15,000 billion tons of CO2 in the atmosphere, 17 times today’s level. Plants and soils combined contain more than 2,000 billion tons of carbon, more that twice as much as the entire global atmosphere. The oceans contain 38,000 billion tons of dissolved CO2, 45 times as much as in the atmosphere. Fossil fuels, which were made from plants that pulled CO2 from the atmosphere account for 5,000 – 10,000 billion tons of carbon, 6 – 12 times as much carbon as is in the atmosphere.

But the truly stunning number is the amount of carbon that has been sequestered from the atmosphere and turned into carbonaceous rocks. 100,000,000 billion tons, that’s one quadrillion tons of carbon, have been turned into stone by marine species that learned to make armour-plating for themselves by combining calcium and carbon into calcium carbonate. Limestone, chalk, and marble are all of life origin and amount to 99.9% of all the carbon ever present in the global atmosphere. The white cliffs of Dover are made of the calcium carbonate skeletons of coccolithophores, tiny marine phytoplankton.

The vast majority of the carbon dioxide that originated in the atmosphere has been sequestered and stored quite permanently in carbonaceous rocks where it cannot be used as food by plants.

Beginning 540 million years ago at the beginning of the Cambrian Period many marine species of invertebrates evolved the ability to control calcification and to build armour plating to protect their soft bodies. Shellfish such as clams and snails, corals, coccolithofores (phytoplankton) and foraminifera (zooplankton) began to combine carbon dioxide with calcium and thus to remove carbon from the life cycle as the shells sank into sediments; 100,000,000 billion tons of carbonaceous sediment. It is ironic that life itself, by devising a protective suit of armour, determined its own eventual demise by continuously removing CO2 from the atmosphere. This is carbon sequestration and storage writ large. These are the carbonaceous sediments that form the shale deposits from which we are fracking gas and oil today. And I add my support to those who say, “OK UK, get fracking”.

The past 150 million years has seen a steady drawing down of CO2 from the atmosphere. There are many components to this but what matters is the net effect, a removal on average of 37,000 tons of carbon from the atmosphere every year for 150 million years. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere was reduced by about 90% during this period. This means that volcanic emissions of CO2 have been outweighed by the loss of carbon to calcium carbonate sediments on a multi-million year basis.

If this trend continues CO2 will inevitably fall to levels that threaten the survival of plants, which require a minimum of 150 ppm to survive. If plants die all the animals, insects, and other invertebrates that depend on plants for their survival will also die.

 

How long will it be at the present level of CO2 depletion until most or all of life on Earth is threatened with extinction by lack of CO2 in the atmosphere?

During this Pleistocene Ice Age, CO2 tends to reach a minimum level when the successive glaciations reach their peak. During the last glaciation, which peaked 18,000 years ago, CO2 bottomed out at 180 ppm, extremely likely the lowest level CO2 has been in the history of the Earth. This is only 30 ppm above the level that plants begin to die. Paleontological research has demonstrated that even at 180 ppm there was a severe restriction of growth as plants began to starve. With the onset of the warmer interglacial period CO2 rebounded to 280 ppm.  But even today, with human emissions causing CO2 to reach 400 ppm plants are still restricted in their growth rate, which would be much higher if CO2 were at 1000-2000 ppm.

Here is the shocking news. If humans had not begun to unlock some of the carbon stored as fossil fuels, all of which had been in the atmosphere as CO2 before sequestration by plants and animals, life on Earth would have soon been starved of this essential nutrient and would begin to die. Given the present trends of glaciations and interglacial periods this would likely have occurred less than 2 million years from today, a blink in nature’s eye, 0.05% of the 3.5 billion-year history of life.

No other species could have accomplished the task of putting some of the carbon back into the atmosphere that was taken out and locked in the Earth’s crust by plants and animals over the millennia. This is why I honour James Lovelock in my lecture this evening. Jim was for many years of the belief that humans are the one-and-only rogue species on Gaia, destined to cause catastrophic global warming. I enjoy the Gaia hypothesis but I am not religious about it and for me this was too much like original sin. It was as if humans were the only evil species on the Earth.

 

But James Lovelock has seen the light and realized that humans may be part of Gaia’s plan, and he has good reason to do so. And I honour him because it takes courage to change your mind after investing so much of your reputation on the opposite opinion. Rather than seeing humans as the enemies of Gaia, Lovelock now sees that we may be working with Gaia to “stave of another ice age”, or major glaciation. This is much more plausible than the climate doom-and gloom scenario because our release of CO2 back into the atmosphere has definitely reversed the steady downward slide of this essential food for life, and hopefully may reduce the chance that the climate will slide into another period of major glaciation. We can be certain that higher levels of CO2 will result in increased plant growth and biomass. We really don’t know whether or not higher levels of CO2 will prevent or reduce the eventual slide into another major glaciation. Personally I am not hopeful for this because the long-term history just doesn’t support a strong correlation between CO2 and temperature.

 

It does boggle the mind in the face of our knowledge that the level of CO2 has been steadily falling that human CO2 emissions are not universally acclaimed as a miracle of salvation. From direct observation we already know that the extreme predictions of CO2’s impact on global temperature are highly unlikely given that about one-third of all our CO2 emissions have been discharged during the past 18 years and there has been no statistically significant warming. And even if there were some additional warming that would surely be preferable to the extermination of all or most species on the planet.

You heard it here. “Human emissions of carbon dioxide have saved life on Earth from inevitable starvation and extinction due to lack of CO2”. To use the analogy of the Atomic Clock, if the Earth were 24 hours old we were at 38 seconds to midnight when we reversed the trend towards the End Times. If that isn’t good news I don’t know what is. You don’t get to stave off Armageddon every day.

 

I issue a challenge to anyone to provide a compelling argument that counters my analysis of the historical record and the prediction of CO2 starvation based on the 150 million year trend. Ad hominem arguments about “deniers” need not apply. I submit that much of society has been collectively misled into believing that global CO2 and temperature are too high when the opposite is true for both. Does anyone deny that below 150 ppm CO2 that plants will die? Does anyone deny that the Earth has been in a 50 million-year cooling period and that this Pleistocene Ice Age is one of the coldest periods in the history of the planet?

 

If we assume human emissions have to date added some 200 billion tons of CO2 to the atmosphere, even if we ceased using fossil fuels today we have already bought another 5 million years for life on earth. But we will not stop using fossil fuels to power our civilization so it is likely that we can forestall plant starvation for lack of CO2 by at least 65 million years. Even when the fossil fuels have become scarce we have the quadrillion tons of carbon in carbonaceous rocks, which we can transform into lime and CO2 for the manufacture of cement. And we already know how to do that with solar energy or nuclear energy. This alone, regardless of fossil fuel consumption, will more than offset the loss of CO2 due to calcium carbonate burial in marine sediments. Without a doubt the human species has made it possible to prolong the survival of life on Earth for more than 100 million years. We are not the enemy of nature but its salvation.

 

As a postscript I would like to make a few comments about the other side of the alleged dangerous climate change coin, our energy policy, in particular the much maligned fossil fuels; coal, oil, and natural gas.

Depending how it’s tallied, fossil fuels account for between 85-88% of global energy consumption and more than 95% of energy for the transport of people and goods, including our food.

Earlier this year the leaders of the G7 countries agreed that fossil fuels should be phased out by 2100, a most bizarre development to say the least. Of course no intelligent person really believes this will happen but it is a testament to the power of the elites that have converged around the catastrophic human-caused climate change that so many alleged world leaders must participate in the charade. How might we convince them to celebrate CO2 rather than to denigrate it?

A lot of nasty things are said about fossil fuels even though they are largely responsible for our longevity, our prosperity, and our comfortable lifestyles.

Hydrocarbons, the energy components of fossil fuels, are 100% organic, as in organic chemistry. They were produced by solar energy in ancient seas and forests. When they are burned for energy the main products are water and CO2, the two most essential foods for life. And fossil fuels are by far the largest storage battery of direct solar energy on Earth. Nothing else comes close except nuclear fuel, which is also solar in the sense that it was produced in dying stars.

 

Today, Greenpeace protests Russian and American oil rigs with 3000 HP diesel-powered ships and uses 200 HP outboard motors to board the rigs and hang anti-oil plastic banners made with fossil fuels. Then they issue a media release telling us we must “end our addiction to oil”. I wouldn’t mind so much if Greenpeace rode bicycles to their sailing ships and rowed their little boats into the rigs to hang organic cotton banners. We didn’t have an H-bomb on board the boat that sailed on the first Greenpeace campaign against nuclear testing.

 

Some of the world’s oil comes from my native country in the Canadian oil sands of northern Alberta. I had never worked with fossil fuel interests until I became incensed with the lies being spread about my country’s oil production in the capitals of our allies around the world. I visited the oil sands operations to find out for myself what was happening there.

It is true it’s not a pretty sight when the land is stripped bare to get at the sand so the oil can be removed from it. Canada is actually cleaning up the biggest natural oil spill in history, and making a profit from it. The oil was brought to the surface when the Rocky Mountains were thrust up by the colliding Pacific Plate. When the sand is returned back to the land 99% of the so-called “toxic oil” has been removed from it.

Anti-oil activists say the oil-sands operations are destroying the boreal forest of Canada. Canada’s boreal forest accounts for 10% of all the world’s forests and the oil-sands area is like a pimple on an elephant by comparison. By law, every square inch of land disturbed by oil-sands extraction must be returned to native boreal forest. When will cities like London, Brussels, and New York that have laid waste to the natural environment be returned to their native ecosystems?

The art and science of ecological restoration, or reclamation as it is called in the mining industry, is a well-established practice. The land is re-contoured, the original soil is put back, and native species of plants and trees are established. It is possible, by creating depressions where the land was flat, to increase biodiversity by making ponds and lakes where wetland plants, insects, and waterfowl can become established in the reclaimed landscape.

The tailings ponds where the cleaned sand is returned look ugly for a few years but are eventually reclaimed into grasslands. The Fort McKay First Nation is under contract to manage a herd of bison on a reclaimed tailings pond. Every tailings pond will be reclaimed in a similar manner when operations have been completed.

As an ecologist and environmentalist for more than 45 years this is good enough for me. The land is disturbed for a blink of an eye in geological time and is then returned to a sustainable boreal forest ecosystem with cleaner sand. And as a bonus we get the fuel to power our weed-eaters, scooters, motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses, trains, and aircraft.

 

To conclude, carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels is the stuff of life, the staff of life, the currency of life, indeed the backbone of life on Earth.

 

I am honoured to have been chosen to deliver your annual lecture.

Thank you for listening to me this evening.

I hope you have seen CO2 from a new perspective and will join with me to Celebrate CO2!

 

 

 

--- --- ---

 

Eftirmáli:

Myndband sem nefnist

Confessions of a Greenpeace Dropout 
Dr Patrick Moore

Erindi flutt á ráđstefnu ICCC
International Conference on Climate Change
8. júlí 2014



Nóbelsverđlaunahafinn í eđlisfrćđi 1973 fjallađi um mál málanna fyrir skömmu. - Athyglisvert...!

798dc1905650439ef9739c022cbee6cd

 

Norđmađurinn Ivar Gićver   fékk nóbelsverđlaunin í eđlisfrćđi áriđ 1973 vegna rannsókna í skammtafrćđi á hálfleiđurum og ofurleiđni. Á samkomu nóbelsverđlaunahafa  1. júlí síđastliđinn hélt hann rćđu sem eftir var tekiđ.

Ívar lauk prófi í vélaverkfrćđi frá Ţrándheimi áriđ 1952, fluttist síđan til Kanada og ţađan til Bandaríkjanna ţar sem hann lauk doktorsprófi áriđ 1964.

Enginn ćtti ađ láta ţetta fram hjá sér fara og hlusta vel á norđmanninn Ivar Giaever. Hann talar mjög skýrt og útskýrir máls sitt ţannig ađ allir ćttu ađ skilja vel. Hann er greinilega međ brjóstvitiđ og frćđin á hreinu. Ţessi heiđursmađur er fćddur áriđ 1929.

Erindiđ fjallar um mál málanna, ţ.e. hnatthlýnun, hćkkun sjávarborđs, óveđur og fleira ...

Ţađ er vel ţess virđi ađ hlusta á Ívar.

 

 

 

 

 

52b9f100239c392c3ad7567c59c4bf4c

 

Vísir 15. desember 1973

 

 

 

Viđtal viđ Ivar Giaever um lífiđ og tilveruna:

http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=713

 

Untitled

 

http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=713

 

Interview with Professor Ivar Giaever by freelance journalist Marika Griehsel at the 54th meeting of Nobel Laureates in Lindau, Germany, June 2004. Professor Giaever talks about celebrating being awarded the Nobel Prize, his move from Norway to Canada and the USA (2:03), how he got the job at General Electrics despite low grades (4:39), the reasons why he became an entrepreneur (9:53), his thoughts about research (13:48) and also gives some advice to young students (15:45).

 

  


Seđlabankinn hćkkađi stýrivexti um 22% í sumar...

 

man-with-percent-sign

 

 

 

Á sama tíma og laun hćkkuđu almennt um 3,5% hćkkađi Seđlabankinn stýrivexti um 22% á tveggja mánađa tímabili.



Stýrivextir hafa ţví hćkkađ rúmlega sex sinnum meira á tveim mánuđum en laun ţorra landsmanna.

 

Hćkkun stýrivaxta frá 4,5% í 5,5% er nefnilega ekki
1% hćkkun, heldur 22%.


Ţví er spáđ ađ stýrivextir verđi komnir í 6,25% í lok árs. 
Hve mikiđ hćkkun verđur ţađ frá ţví í sumar?
1,75% hćkkun eđa 39% hćkkun á hálfu ári?

 



Kjarninn: Spá hrađri hćkkun stýrivaxta á nćstu misserum

 

  


Rýrnun jökla; kólnun eđa hlýnun framundan...?

RSS hitastig juli 2015

 

Stórt er spurt í fyrirsögn pistilsins og svariđ er einfalt: Veit ekki.

Ţađ er ţó áhugavert ađ velta ţessu ađeins fyrir sér, sérstaklega ţar sem hitastig jarđar hefur stađiđ meira og minna í stađ í fjölda ára. Menn eru ţó ađ deila um hvort eitt áriđ sé hlýrra eđa kaldara en annađ, en ţá er munurinn oftar en ekki tölfrćđilega ómarktćkur ţví hann er innan mćlióvissu. Hugsanlega gćti áriđ í ár orđiđ í hlýrra lagi međ hjálp El Nińo sem er í gerjun núna í Kyrrahafinu.

Ekki verđur tekiđ ţátt í ţessum metingi hér um mishlý ár, en ţar sem bloggarinn er vinur vors og blóma stendur honum ţó nokkur uggur af hugsanlegri kólnun eftir góđćrin undanfariđ.

Myndin efst á síđunni:  Samkvćmt mćlingum međ gervihnöttum (RSS-MSU) hefur engin hćkkun í lofthita jarđar orđiđ síđan í janúar 1997. Notuđ er ađferđ minnstu kvađrata til ađ finna bestu ađhvarfslínu (regression line). Smella á mynd til ađ stćkka og sjá betur.  Ferillinn nćr til loka júlí 2015.  Hann er fenginn af vefsíđu Ole Humlum prófessors viđ Oslóarháskóla (www.climate4you.com), en sá er ţessar línur ritar teiknađi inn á hann.



Hafi einhver áhuga á smá grúski um ţessi mál, ţá má benda á pistil sem ritstjóri ţessarar síđu dundađi sér viđ um helgina, en pistillinn fjallar um ađra frétt sem nýlega var í fjölmiđlum, ţ.e. um áhrif sólar á veđurfar. Sjá pistilinn: Leiđrétt sólblettagögn - Sólin hefur enn áhrif.

 




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mbl.is Rýrnun jökla endar mögulega í ár
Tilkynna um óviđeigandi tengingu viđ frétt

Hver var Ingibjörg H. Bjarnason...?


Ingibjorg H Bjarnason frímerki

  

Í dag 19. júní  verđur afhjúpuđ viđ Alţingishúsiđ höggmynd af afasystur minni Ingibjörgu H. Bjarnason, ţegar hundrađ ár eru frá ţví ađ konur fengu kosningarétt og kjörgengi til Alţingis. Verkiđ er eftir  Ragnhildi Stefánsdóttur myndhöggvara. Ingibjörg var fyrsta konan sem tók sćti á alţingi áriđ 1922.

Ingibjörg var ekki ein í jafnréttisbaráttunni.  Hún var ein margra merkra baráttukvenna sem fyrr og síđar lögđu baráttunni liđ.  Ţetta voru sterkar konur og hugađar.  Ingibjörg naut ţess ađ hafa fengiđ tćkifćri til menntast, bćđi hér á landi og erlendis. Ţađ var frekar fátítt á ţessum árum.  Nú er öldin önnur og konur hafa sömu tćkifćri til menntunar og karlar, en launamisrétti viđgengst enn. Jafnréttisbaráttunni er ţví ekki lokiđ.



Á vefnum Garđur.is ítarleg lýsing á ćviferli Ingibjargar sem Jón Valur Jensson hefur tekiđ saman. Međ góđfúslegu leyfi Jóns birti ég ţađ hér fyrir neđan međ smávćgilegum breytingum (feitletrun á fáeinum stöđum til ađ auđvelda lestur af skjá, og fáeinum línubilum bćtt viđ).   Sjá einnig lista yfir ítarefni hér neđst á síđunni.



Fröken_Ingibjörg_H._Bjarnason

Ingibjörg Hákonardóttir Bjarnason var fćdd á Ţingeyri viđ Dýrafjörđ 14. desember 1867, dóttir Hákonar Bjarnasonar (f. 11. sept. 1828, d. 2. apríl 1877, varđ úti eftir skipsstrand á Mýrdalssandi), kaupmanns ţar og á Bíldudal, og k.h. Jóhönnu Kristínar Ţorleifsdóttur (f. 16. des. 1834, d. 11. jan. 1896), sem bćđi voru af prestum komin. Börn ţeirra hjóna voru 12 talsins, en sjö dóu í ćsku. Hin fimm urđu ţjóđkunn og tóku upp ćttarnafniđ Bjarnason. Voru albrćđur Ingibjargar dr. Ágúst H. Bjarnason, prófessor í heimspekiLárus hćstaréttardómari og alţm., Brynjólfur kaupmađur og Ţorleifur yfirkennari. Ingibjörg ólst upp frá eins til 12 ára aldurs á Bíldudal, en 1880 fluttist móđir hennar til Reykjavíkur til ađ koma börnunum til mennta. Ingibjörg gekk á nćsta ári í Kvennaskólann í Rvík og lauk ţađan prófi 1882. Var hún síđan viđ nám árin 1882-84 í kvenlegum listum ásamt dönsku, ensku og teiknun hjá Ţóru, dóttur Péturs biskups Péturssonar. Eftir ţađ hélt hún til framhaldsnáms í Kaupmannahöfn 1884-5, en varđ ađ hverfa heim vegna veikinda móđur sinnar. Fór aftur á sömu slóđir 1886 til náms í ýmsum greinum, ţ.á m. leikfiminám og lauk prófi í ţeirri grein viđ Institut Paul Petersen; mun hafa veriđ fyrst íslenzkra kvenna til ađ ljúka prófi í ţeirri grein. Dvaldist hún í Khöfn viđ nám og störf til 1893, en móđir hennar hélt ţar heimili fyrir börn sín sem voru ţar viđ nám. Enn síđar dvaldist Ingibjörg erlendis 1901-3 og kynnti sér skólahald, einkum í Ţýzkalandi og Sviss.


Hún fluttist heim 1893, var viđ kennslustörf í Rvík til 1901, kenndi m.a. leikfimi viđ Barnaskólann, en í Kvennaskólanum kenndi hún á árunum 1893-1901 svo fjölbreyttar greinar sem leikfimi, bróderí, útsaum, léreftasaum, hvítbróderí, teiknun, dans, heilsufrćđi og dönsku. Ţá tóku viđ tvö utanferđarár, unz hún var aftur kennari viđ Kvennaskólann 1903-6, á síđustu árum Ţóru Melsteđ sem forstöđukonu.

Hún var ráđin sem forstöđukona skólans 1906 og gegndi ţví starfi til ćviloka. "Forstöđukvennaskiptin urđu slétt og felld, ţrátt fyrir kynslóđaskiptin. Frú Ţóra vildi, ađ frk. Ingibjörg tćki viđ, enda mun hún af flestum hafa veriđ talin nćr sjálfkjörin til starfsins og ekki veriđ ţví mótfallin sjálf" (AE). Lýsti Ţóra Ingibjörgu ţannig í riti um skólann 1874-1906: "Mér er kunnugt um ţrek hennar, ţekkingu og dugnađ, hún hefur kennt bćđi viđ kvennaskólann og víđar og áunniđ sér almanna lof." Setti hún fljótt mark sitt á skólann, m.a. međ ýtarlegri skólaskýrslum og nýbreytni í náminu, en um leiđ var nauđsynlegt ađ afla frekari fjárveitinga frá Alţingi til reksturs skólans, og var skólinn settur í nýju húsnćđi, sem var reyndar í eigu Steingríms Guđmundssonar trésmiđs, viđ Fríkirkjuveg ţann 6. okt. 1909. Var hann nú ekki einungis einn fjölmennasti skólinn, heldur einnig "fjölmennasta heimili í Reykjavík" vegna heimavistarinnar, og krafđist allt ţetta sem og naumur fjárhagur ýtrustu skipulagningar af Ingibjörgu (AE). Ţá var tekin upp kennsla í ţýzku, enskukennsla aukin, hjúkrunarkennsla hafin fyrir allar námsmeyjar og sumt í verklegu kennslunni og trúfrćđi fellt niđur, međfram í sparnađarskyni; skólareglur voru einnig gerđar ýtarlegri.

Áriđ 1925 var lagt fram á Alţingi frumvarp til laga um ađ ríkisstjórnin tćki ađ sér Kvennaskólann. Voru Jón Magnússon forsćtisráđherra og Ingibjörg, sem ţá sat á ţingi, bćđi međmćlt frumvarpinu, en ţađ ţađ mćtti harđri mótspyrnu, einkum Jónasar frá Hriflu, og var ţađ fellt eftir ţriđju umrćđu á jöfnum atkvćđum. Má lesa um ţetta o.fl. í sögu skólans í ritinu Kvennaskólinn í Reykjavík 1874-1974. En voriđ 1930 keypti skólinn húsiđ á Fríkirkjuvegi međ stuđningi Alţingis og Reykjavíkurborgar.

Ingibjörg var stöđuglynd og sýndi reglufestu í skólahaldinu, bar umhyggju fyrir námsmeyjunum, var til fyrirmyndar um starfshćtti bćđi skólans og heimavistarinnar og hafđi forgöngu um ađ kennsla var tekin upp í svo ţörfum greinum sem hjúkrun í heimahúsum, međferđ ungbarna og hjálp í viđlögum. Hún fór í margar utanlandsferđir í skólastjóratíđ sinni til ađ kynna sér hiđ markverđasta í skóla- og uppeldismálum. Hún var fyrsti og eini heiđursfélagi Nemendasambands skólans, sem stofnađ var 1937, og sást á ţví, hvern hug og virđingu eldri nemendur báru til hennar.


Ingibjörg var umbóta-, kvenréttinda- og félagsmálakona. Hún tók á yngri árum mikinn ţátt í starfsemi Thorvaldsensfélagsins og sat í stjórn ţess; var hún valin til ađ halda rćđu fyrir minni félagsins á 25 ára afmćli ţess. Ţá starfađi hún mikiđ í Lestrarfélagi kvenna í Reykjavík og Hinu íslenzka kvenfélagi. Hún átti mestan ţátt í stofnun Hins íslenzka heimilisiđnađarfélags 1913, sem formađur nefndar um undirbúning og lagasetningu ţess félags (ađrir í nefndinni voru Matthías Ţórđarson ţjóđminjavörđur og Jón Ţórarinsson frćđslumálastjóri).


Íslenzkar konur fengu kosningarétt til Alţingis međ lögum, sem undirrituđ voru af konungi ţann 19. júní 1915, og hefur sá dagur síđan veriđ hátíđardagur kvenna. Ţađ skilyrđi var ţó sett, ađ ţćr skyldu vera orđnar fertugar ađ aldri, en ţví var breytt 1920 í kjölfar Sambandslaganna, og hefur síđan ríkt jafnrétti kynjanna ađ ţessu leyti. Kosningarétti kvenna var fagnađ á miklum fjöldafundi ţann 7. júlí 1915 eftir hátíđargöngu um miđbć Reykjavíkur, en hornaflokkur lék undir íslenzk lög. Fór fundurinn fram á fánum skreyttum Austurvelli, og gekk sendinefnd fimm kvenna inn í ţinghúsiđ og fćrđi sameinuđu ţingi fagurt, skrautritađ ávarp frá íslenzkum konum. Hafđi Ingibjörg orđ fyrir ţeim og gerđi ţađ međ virđuleik og skörungsskap (hinar nefndarkonurnar voru Bríet Bjarnhéđinsdóttir, Elín Stephensen, Kristín Jacobson og Ţórunn Jónassen). Forseti Sameinađs Alţingis ţakkađi međ stuttri rćđu, sem og ráđherra, Einar Arnórsson, og voru konur hylltar af ţingheimi međ ţreföldu húrrahrópi. Á Austurvelli söng kvennakór kvćđi ort í tilefni dagsins, lesiđ var upp skeyti til Kristjáns konungs X og drottningar frá kvennafundinum og ávarpiđ til Alţingis, en síđan fluttu Bríet Bjarnhéđinsdóttir og Ingibjörg H. Bjarnason rćđur. Var samkoman "ein sú fjölmennasta sem sést hafđi hér á landi, ef ekki sú fjölmennasta  og aldrei höfđu áđur sést svo margar og jafn-prúđbúnar konur. Ţá var ţetta í fyrsta sinn sem íslenzki fáninnn var hafđur uppi á fjölmennri útisamkomu sem viđurkenndur sérfáni Íslands," en konungur hafđi undirritađ frumvarp ţess efnis ţann hinn sama 19. júní.


Konur vildu nú minnast ţessarar miklu réttarbótar á einhvern hátt, sem verđa mćtti ţjóđinni allri til heilla. Ţćr ákváđu ađ beita sér fyrir byggingu landspítala. "Međ ţví vćri réttarbót ţessari reistur verđugur minnisvarđi" (SBT). Ţađ var Ingibjörg sem hafđi forgöngu um söfnun fjár til stofnunar sjúkrahússins; var hún formađur landspítalasjóđsnefndar frá stofnun sjóđsins 19. júní 1915 til ćviloka. Vann hún ađ ţví međ oddi og egg ađ koma byggingu spítalans í framkvćmd. Ţá var hún einnig formađur Minningargjafasjóđs landspítala Íslands frá upphafi hans til ćviloka, en fé hans var lagt til framfćrslu fátćkum sjúklingum. Ţakkađi Guđmundur Hannesson prófessor íslenzkum konum heiđurinn af ţví, ađ spítalinn tók til starfa, ţćr söfnuđu međ margra ára erfiđi 300.000 kr., sem reiđ baggamuninn.


Áriđ 1922 var Ingibjörg fyrst kvenna kjörin til setu á Alţingi, fulltrúi hins ópólitíska kvennalista eđa C-listans, sem bođinn var fram á vegum hluta kvennahreyfingarinnar. Var hún landskjörinn alţingismađur 1922-30 og skipađi sér sćti í Íhaldsflokknum, síđar Sjálfstćđisflokknum. Helztu hugsjónamálin voru landspítalamáliđ, bćtt fátćkralöggjöf og eftirlit međ umkomulausum börnum og gamalmennum, en hún beitti sér einnig fyrir öđrum ţjóđţrifamálum, m.a. ţeim sem vörđuđu réttarbćtur kvenna, menntamál og listir. "Hún leit ekki á sig fyrst og fremst sem málsvara kvenna í landinu, heldur ţingmann allrar ţjóđarinnar" (SBT). Hún var 2. varaforseti Efri deildar Alţingis 1925-27. "Hún flutti merkt frumvarp um skipun opinberra nefnda áriđ 1927. Í ţví fólst áskorun til ríkisstjórnarinnar um ađ konur fengju sćti í nefndum sem skipađar vćru á vegum ţingsins og vörđuđu almenning. Hún sagđi ađ konur hefđu beđiđ eftir ţví ađ vera kallađar til samvinnu um fleira en ţađ eitt ađ kjósa í ţau 12 ár sem ţćr hefđu haft kosningarétt, en án árangurs. Ţessi tillaga hennar náđi ekki fram ađ ganga á ţingi" (Heimastjorn.is).

Sagnfrćđingur, sem lítur til baka, lýsir ástandinu ţannig: "Ţegar Ingibjörg H. Bjarnason var kjörin á ţing áriđ 1922 voru flestir ţeirra karla sem stutt höfđu kvenréttindin horfnir á braut, enda voru róttćkustu tillögur hennar felldar, jafnvel umrćđulaust. Ţađ ţurfti ekki ađ rćđa svona kvenréttindaraus. Hér er fullkomiđ jafnrétti milli karla og kvenna og hefur lengi veriđ," skrifađi Morgunblađiđ áriđ 1926. Tímar bakslags og andstöđu gengu í garđ, og ţeir tímar stóđu fram yfir 1960" (Kristín Ástgeirsdóttir, í erindi um íslenzka karla og réttindabaráttu kvenna).  

Ingibjörg átti sćti í landsbankanefnd 1928-32 og menntamálaráđi 1928-34, einnig í fjárveitinganefnd efri deildar og lengst af í menntamálanefnd. Sama ár og hún lét af ţingstörfum var önnur sjálfstćđiskona kjörin til ţingsetu, en ţađ var Guđrún Lárusdóttir rithöfundur.

Ingibjörg gegndi ţó áfram störfum sem skólastjóri Kvennaskólans allan ţennan tíma og til ćviloka, en hún lézt ţann 30. október 1941, á 74. aldursári. Hafđi hún veriđ afburđakennari, ströng, en full umhyggju, réttlát í skiptum viđ starfsfólk og nemendur skólans og skildi ađeins eftir bjartar minningar. Viđ skólastjórn Kvennaskólans, eftir fráfall hennar, tók Ragnheiđur Jónsdóttir, sem ţar hafđi kennt áratugum saman og veriđ sem hćgri hönd hennar.


Ingibjörg var kona ađsópsmikil og verđur jafnan talin í fremstu röđ kvenna sem gáfu sig ađ ţjóđmálum, eftir ađ konum var veittur kosningaréttur 1915. Hún var fríđ kona og virđuleg og hélt ţeim einkennum fram á elliár. Hún var ein af ţeim konum, er settu svip á bćinn (SBT). Á efri árum sínum gaf hún stóran sjóđ, 15.000 krónur, til ađ styrkja framhaldsnám námsmeyja skólans erlendis. Og í erfđaskrá sinni afleiddi hún skólann ađ eignum sínum ađ undanskildu ţví, sem hún ánafnađi ćttingjum og vinum. "Náđi ţví umhyggja frk. Ingibjargar H. Bjarnason fyrir Kvennaskólanum í Reykjavík út yfir gröf og dauđa" (SBT).  
Ingibjörg var ógift og barnlaus.


                                                                                                                                      (JVJ)

 

 

 

 

 1923-1931---IHB_

 Ingibjörg H. Bjarnason á alţingi

 

 thingkonur05

Málverk af Ingibjörgu H. Bjarnason var afhjúpađ í efrideildarsal Alţingishússins 9. mars 2005. Ingibjörg var fyrst kvenna kosin ţingmađur áriđ 1922. Ragnhildur Helgadóttir, sem fyrst kvenna var kjörin forseti (ađalforseti) ţingdeildar, afhjúpađi málverkiđ sem er eftir Gunnlaug Blöndal listmálara.

 

 

1924-konurh

                                                       Íhaldsflokkurinn 1924

 

 

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Borgaryfirvöld í Feneyjum töldu framlag Íslands og Islams ógn viđ öryggiđ...

 

 

 

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Eru Íslendingar stundum kjánar?    

Ekki er laust viđ ţađ.  Stundum meira segja miklir kjánar.

Ţessi mál eru gríđarlega viđkvćm og eldfim á meginlandinu. Ţađ er erfitt ađ átta sg á afleiđingum ţess ađ ögra, ţó ţađ sé ekki ćtlunin.      

Stundum skammast mađur sín fyrir ađ vera Íslendingur.

 

 

Af vef Ríkisútvarpsins:

Töldu framlag Íslands „ógn viđ öryggiđ“

06.05.2015 - 23:26

http://www.ruv.is/node/896183

"Borgaryfirvöld í Feneyjum sendu Kynningarmiđstöđ íslenskrar myndlistar bréf ţar sem fram kom ađ lögreglan teldi framlag Íslands á Feneyjatvíćringinum „ógn viđ öryggiđ.“ Ţetta kemur fram í úttekt New York Times um mosku Christoph Büchel sem nú rís í Feneyjum.
 

New York Times hefur bréfiđ undir höndum. Ţar segir ađ lögreglan í Feneyjum hafi međal annars gert athugasemdir viđ stađsetningu moskunnar og taliđ ađ hún vćri mikill hausverkur. 

Moskan stendur nćrri göngubrú viđ síki. Lögreglan í Feneyjum taldi ađ erfitt yrđi ađ hafa mikla öryggisgćslu á ţessu svćđi - ţađ vćri nauđsynlegt í ljósi ţeirrar hryđjuverkaógnar sem stafađi frá öfgatrúarhópum.

New York Times fullyrđir enn fremur ađ forsvarsmenn Feneyjatvíćringsins hafi sem minnst viljađ vita af framlagi Íslands. Enginn frá listahátíđinni svarađi skilabođum blađsins ţegar leitađ var eftir viđbrögđum.

Fram kemur í umfjöllun New York Times ađ Büchel og Nína Magnúsdóttir, sýningarstjóri sýningarinnar, hafi eftir ţetta bréf ráđfćrt sig viđ lögfrćđinga. Eftir fundarhöld hafi veriđ ákveđiđ ađ halda áfram međ verkiđ.

Hamad Mahamed, sem á ađ stýra bćnastarfi moskunnar, segir í samtali viđ New York Times ađ moskan sé mikilvćgt verkefni fyrir samfélag múslima. „Ţarna gefst okkur tćkifćri til ađ sýna fólki hvađ íslam snýst raunverulega um - ţađ eru ekki myndirnar sem sýndar eru í fjölmiđlum.“

Fram kom í tilkynningu Kynningarmiđstöđvarinnar í síđasta mánuđi ađ moskan verđi í yfirgefinni kirkju frá 10. öld. Ţetta er fyrsta moskan í Feneyjum en hún er unnin í nánu samstarfi viđ samfélög múslima á Íslandi og í Feneyjum.

New York Times segir ađ Büchel hafi leitađ mánuđum saman ađ samstarfsađila í Feneyjum. Ţegar hann hafi loksins fundiđ kirkjuna hafi borgaryfirvöld bannađ honum ađ breyta henni ađ utan.  Hann hafi til ađ mynda ekki mátt setja upp lágmynd međ orđunum Allahu akbar eđa „Allah er mikill“. 

Büchel hefur sjálfur sagt ađ hann vilji međ verkinu vekja athygli á pólitískri „stofnanavćđingu ađskilnađar og fordóma, hvar sem er í heiminum.“   "

 

 

 

Myndin efst á síđunni er af vef RÚV ţar sem fjallađ er um máliđ.

 

 

 

 


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Conversations that matter - Earth is actually growing greener

Ţađ er vel ţess virđi ađ hlusta á hvađ ţessi hógvćri snillingur hefur ađ segja í viđtalinu viđ Stuart McNish.

Stutt kynning er í byrjun viđtalsins, en ţađ byrjar viđ mínútu 3:00.



Kynning sem fylgir viđtalinu:
“This week’s Conversation that Matters features Princeton University’s preeminent physicist Freeman Dyson who says models do a good job of helping us understand climate but they do a very poor job of predicting it.

Dyson says, “as measured from space, the whole earth is growing greener as a result of carbon dioxide, so it’s increasing agricultural yields, it’s increasing the forests and it’s increasing growth in the biological world and that’s more important and more certain than the effects on climate.”

He acknowledges that human activity has an effect on climate but claims it is much less than is claimed. He stresses the non-climate benefits of carbon are overwhelmingly favourable.”

 


Ferilskrá Freeman Dyson:
http://www.sns.ias.edu/sites/default/files/files/Dyson_Biography_detailed(1).pdf

 

Discover: The beautiful mind of Freeman Dyson:
http://discovermagazine.com/2008/jun/09-the-beautiful-mind-of-freeman-dyson

The Economist um Freeman Dyson:
http://moreintelligentlife.com/content/ideas/charles-nevin/60-year-job-freeman-dyson

 

Ritverk Freeman Dyson á Amazon.
http://www.amazon.com/Freeman-Dyson/e/B000APXXEU

 

Af vefsíđu Institute for Advanced Studies:

"The Institute for Advanced Study is one of the world’s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. The Institute exists to encourage and support curiosity-driven research in the sciences and humanities—the original, often speculative thinking that produces advances in knowledge that change the way we understand the world. It provides for the mentoring of scholars by Faculty, and it ensures the freedom to undertake research that will make significant contributions in any of the broad range of fields in the sciences and humanities studied at the Institute.

The Institute is a private, independent academic institution located in Princeton, New Jersey.  It was founded in 1930 by philanthropists Louis Bamberger and his sister Caroline Bamberger Fuld, and established through the vision of founding Director Abraham Flexner. Past Faculty have included Albert Einstein, who remained at the Institute until his death in 1955, and distinguished scientists and scholars such as Kurt Gödel, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Erwin Panofsky, Hetty Goldman, Homer A. Thompson, John von Neumann, George Kennan, Hermann Weyl, and Clifford Geertz."


https://www.ias.edu/about/mission-and-history

 


Skynsamlegt stađarval Landspítala á lóđ RÚV nćrri Borgarspítalanum, eđa enn betra viđ Vífilsstađi...

ruv-landspitali-001.jpg

 

 

Á myndinni hér ađ ofan má sjá hve nálćgt Borgarspítalanum lóđ RÚV er, og hve vel hún liggur ađ umferđarćđum. Ţessi stađsetning er miklu mun heppilegri en lóđin viđ Hringbraut, og mun skynsamlegra ađ nýr spítali rísi ţar.  Nýr spítali viđ Hrngbraut kostar sjálfsagt vel yfir 100 milljarđa króna, svo ţađ er full ástćđa til ađ staldra viđ.

Auđvitađ á síđan ađ byggja spítalann lóđrétt, en ekki lárétt eins og spítalinn viđ Hringbraut hefur veriđ hannađur. Ţannig sparast ţúsundir fermetrar af tengigöngum. Hćgt er ađ spara fjölda starfsmanna sem annars ţyrfti viđ ţrif á ţessum göngum og til ađ ferja sjúklinga  eftir ţeim milli bygginga. Ţannig bygging yrđi einnig vćntanlega töluvert ódýrari.

Í lóđréttri byggingu koma góđar lyftur í stađ  fjölda langra tengiganga. Örstutt er ţá á milli deilda. Á ţetta hefur skynsamt fólk bent, en ekki veriđ hlustađ.

Međ tilliti til umferđar er stađurinn viđ Hringbraut eins óheppilegur og hugsast getur.  Vonandi staldra menn nú viđ og íhugi hugmynd forsćtisráđherra um ađ nýta lóđ RÚV fyrir nýjan spítala, sem allir eru sammála um ađ rísa ţurfi.

Svo má ekki gleyma Vífilsstöđum. Kannski vćri ţađ besta lausnin, ţví ţar er nćgt landrými fyrir byggingar og bílastćđi. 

 

Vonandi verđur skynsemin látin ráđa svo komiđ verđi í veg fyrir stórslysiđ sem er í uppsiglingu viđ Hringbraut. Nú er lag...

 

  Vifilsstadir


mbl.is Nýr Landspítali í Efstaleiti?
Tilkynna um óviđeigandi tengingu viđ frétt

Astro-naut og Nautagil...

 

Mooooonwalk_rjn_3264

 

 

Skemmtileg mynd er á vefsíđunni Astronomical Picture of the Day hjá NASA í dag. 

Vísindamenn hafa velt fyrir sér hvernig menn munu fara ađ ţví ađ lifa af búsetu á tunglinu. Auđvitađ munu ţeir ţurfa mjólkurvörur svo sem skyr, nýmjólk og rjóma. 

Landnámsmennirnir urđu ađ flytja međ sér allan bústofninn til Íslands á sínum tíma, og eins verđur međ geimfara framtíđarinnar. 

Vísindamenn hafa ţó áttađ sig á ţví vandamáli ađ lítiđ er um loft á Tunglinu, minna loft en í Ţingeyjasýslu sumariđ 1969 ţar sem tunglfarar voru ađ kynna sér ađstćđur sem líkjast ţeim sem eru á Mánanum.  Hjá Ţingeyingum var nóg loft.

 

Jarđfrćđingarnir Sigurđur Ţórarinsson og Guđmundur Sigvaldason gáfu litlu gili á hálendinu fyrir norđan nafniđ Nautagil til heiđurs geimförunum, sem kallast astronaut á enskri tungu. Ţeir hafa veriđ mjög framsýnir, ţví nú hafa vísindamenn loks fundiđ lausn á vandamálinu, eins og APOD myndin ber međ sér.

 

  

 Sverrir Pálsson tók ţessa mynd sem fengin var ađ láni hjá Vísi af Guđmundi Sigvaldasyni, Sigurđi Ţórarinssyni
og astronautunum áriđ 1969.

nautagil


Takk fyrir framtakiđ stjörnuskođunarmenn...!

 

797354.jpg

 

Nokkrir félagar mínir í Stjörnuskođunarfélagi Seltjarnarness sýndu fádćma dugnađ og frumkvćđi ţegar ţeir fluttu inn 75.000 sólmyrkvagleraugu og gáfu grunnskólabörnum um land allt bróđurpartinn, en seldu almenningi hluta ţeirra til ađ fjármagna verkefniđ. Fyrir ţađ eru flestir ţakklátir, ef undanskildir eru fáeinir kverúlantar sem af óskiljanlegum ástćđum voru međ dónaskap og skćting í garđ ţessara áhugasömu sjálfbođaliđa.

Stjörnuskođunarmenn vildu gefa börnunum gleraugun til minja um atburđinn. Af einhverjum óskiljanlegum ástćđum leyfđu skólastjórnendur í Reykjavík ţađ ekki og létu börnin skila gleraugunum til skólanna...

Ţađ er víst margt óskiljanlegt í hegđun manna.

Eftir 11 ár verđur almyrkvi á sólu á Íslandi. Ţá munu skólarnir í Reykjavík eiga birgđir af sólmyrkvagleraugum og mun Stjörnuskođunarfélagiđ ţá geta sleppt ţeim skólum ef ţeir endurtaka leikinn, og einbeitt sér ađ skólum utan höfuđborgarinnar og kannski einnig leikskólunum...   Auđvitađ yrđi ţađ ekki óskiljanlegt, eđa ţannig...

Líklega verđa allir búnir ađ gleyma leiđindunum ţá og gleraugun í hirslum skólanna löngu týnd.  Viđ skulum bara leyfa okkur ađ fara ađ hlakka til strax og vera viđbúin tímanlega, ţví eitt er víst, tíminn flýgur cool.

 

Stjörnuskođunarfélag Seltjarnarness er í raun eina félag sinnar tegundar á Íslandi, enda búa félagar víđa á landinu. Sjálfur hef ég veriđ félagi frá ţví á síđustu öld og setiđ í stjórn ţess um skeiđ.   Takk fyrir frábćrt framtak félagar !

  

www.astro.is

 

 total-solar-elipse-diamondring

 


mbl.is Hystería í ađdraganda sólmyrkvans
Tilkynna um óviđeigandi tengingu viđ frétt

Norđurljós í kvöld 17. mars...?

 

Í morgun klukkan 5:54 barst tilkynning frá Rice Space Institute: RED ALERT.

"This is an alert from the Rice Space Institute...
Value of the Boyle index warrants Condition RED
Trigger Boyle index value: 277.67
This index is based on the ACE Solar Wind data..."

http://mms.rice.edu/realtime/forecast.html

 

Töluverđ ókyrrđ sést núna á mćlum víđa um heim.  Sjá vefinn Norđurljósaspá.

Á vefnum www.solarham.net  stendur:

CME Impact / Aurora Watch (UPDATED): The ACE spacecraft detected a sudden solar wind increase to over 500 km/s just after 04:00 UTC (March 17). This could possibly be related to the CME associated with the C9 flare from this past weekend. The incoming shock should sweep past Earth within the next hour (04:30 - 05:30 UTC). Sky watchers at high latitudes should be alert for visible aurora displays should increased geomagnetic activity result from this event. A minor (G1) geomagnetic storm watch is in effect for the next 24-48 hours.

CME Impact: Ground based magnetometers detected a geomagnetic sudden impulse (54 nT @ Boulder) at 04:35 UTC. This marks the exact moment that an interplanetary shockwave originating from the sun swept past our planet. The Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), carried through our solar system via the solar wind is currently pointing north, a condition that could suppress geomagnetic activity. Monitor solar wind during the next several hours. Should the Bz tip south, this could help intensify geomagnetic conditions at high latitudes. Sky watchers should be alert tonight for visible aurora displays.

 

Ţađ er frekar óvenjulegt ađ Rice Space Institute sendi út RED ALERT. Venjulega ađeins YELLOW ALERT.  Hugsanlega verđa ţví falleg norđurljós í kvöld, en ekki er hćgt ađ treysta á ţađ.

 

Uppfćrt: klukkan 17:13.

 

Myndin hér fyrir neđan er tímastimpluđ 17:05.    
Mikiđ gengur á í háloftunum og vafalítiđ norđurljós víđa.


Sjá:   http://www.spaceweather.com      http://www.solarham.net

http://spaceweathergallery.com/indiv_upload.php?upload_id=109913

 

 

latest

 

 

Ţessi mynd uppfćrist sjálfvirkt:

latest

 

 

 "The auroras were insane," says Marketa who regularly runs a photography workshop on the Arctic Circle. She has seen a lot of auroras. "I have never seen anything like this."alaska_strip (1)


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