Getur slin bjarga okkur fr hnatthlnun? Grein sem vekur hroll The Independent 5. des.

grein sem var breska blainu The Independent 5. des. bendir Dr. David Whitehouse stjrnufringur stareynd a um essar mundir gti veri a draga hratt r virkni slar. Svo geti fari a v fylgi veruleg klnun allra nstu ratugum. Whitehouse bendir einnig stareynd a ekki hefur hlna fr rinu 1998, heldur hafi hitinn haldist nokku stugur. (Sj splunkunjan hitaferil ). Hann segir a taka urfi etta alvarlega. Svo vilji til, a mean Litlu sldinni st hafi virkni slar einmitt veri mjg ltil, en v kuldatmabili hafi fylgt hungur og vansld. lok greinarinnar segir Whitehouse, a ef etta gerist, muni a gefa okkur lengri tma til a bregast vi hnatthlnun af mannavldum, ea jafnvel gjrbylta hugmyndum okkar um hrif manna loftslagsbreytingar.

a er stulaust a a essa hugaveru grein, v flestir eru smilega lsir enska tungu.

Bloggarinn vill ekki taka afstu til ess hvort Dr. Whitehouse hefur rtt fyrir sr, en eitt er vst a ef svo er, munum vi vera vr vi a frekar fyrr en seinna. mun klna verulega. Svipaar skoanir og koma fram essari grein eru farnar a sjst var, en tminn einn mun leia ljs hvort sannleikskorn leynist eim. Vi skulum fyrst og fremst lta essa grein sem innlegg umruna um loftslagsbreytingar, en flestir telja a r su a hluta af manna vldum og a hluta af nttrunnar vldum. Hve mikinn tt nttran essum breytingum veit enginn enn... anga til sannleikurinn kemur ljs getum vi velt fyrir nokkur hvort komi sr betur fyrir mannkyn, hlnun ea klnun... Hva hefur sagan kennt okkur? Mun fara eins fyrir hkkun hitastigs sustu ld og hkkun hlutabrfa essu ri? Halo

Sj einnig bloggfrsluna Mun slin kla okkur svo um munar innan frra ra? fr 27. jan. 2007 ar sem Dr. Nigel Weiss, fyrrverandi prfessor strfrilegri stjarnelisfri vi Cambridge hskla, heldur fram svipuum skounum. ar m sj mlverk sem mla var London ri 1695 og snir vi hverju m hugsanlega bast ef essar svartsnu spr rtast.


Ray of hope: Can the sun save us from global warming?

Dr David Whitehouse

Could the Sun's inactivity save us from global warming? David Whitehouse explains why solar disempower may be the key to combating climate change

Published:05 December 2007


Between 1645 and 1715 sunspots were rare.
It was also a time when the Earth's northern
hemisphere chilled dramatically

Something is happening to our Sun. It has to do with sunspots, or rather the activity cycle their coming and going signifies. After a period of exceptionally high activity in the 20th century, our Sun has suddenly gone exceptionally quiet. Months have passed with no spots visible on its disc. We are at the end of one cycle of activity and astronomers are waiting for the sunspots to return and mark the start of the next, the so-called cycle 24. They have been waiting for a while now with no sign it's on its way any time soon.

Sunspots - dark magnetic blotches on the Sun's surface - come and go in a roughly 11-year cycle of activity first noticed in 1843. It's related to the motion of super-hot, electrically charged gas inside the Sun - a kind of internal conveyor belt where vast sub-surface rivers of gas take 40 years to circulate from the equator to the poles and back. Somehow, in a way not very well understood, this circulation produces the sunspot cycle in which every 11 years there is a sunspot maximum followed by a minimum. But recently the Sun's internal circulation has been failing. In May 2006 this conveyor belt had slowed to a crawl - a record low. Nasa scientist David Hathaway said: "It's off the bottom of the charts... this has important repercussions for future solar activity." What's more, it's not the only indicator that the Sun is up to something.

Sunspots can be long or short, weak or strong and sometimes they can go away altogether. Following the discovery of the cycle, astronomers looked back through previous observations and were able to see it clearly until they reached the 17th century, when it seemed to disappear. It turned out to be a real absence, not one caused by a lack of observations. Astronomers called it the "Maunder Minimum." It was an astonishing discovery: our Sun can change. Between 1645 and 1715 sunspots were rare. About 50 were observed; there should have been 50,000.

Ever since the sunspot cycle was discovered, researchers have looked for its rhythm superimposed on the Earth's climate. In some cases it's there but usually at low levels. But there was something strange about the time when the sunspots disappeared that left scientists to ponder if the sun's unusual behaviour could have something to do with the fact that the 17th century was also a time when the Earth's northern hemisphere chilled with devastating consequences.

Scientists call that event the "Little Ice Age" and it affected Europe at just the wrong time. In response to the more benign climate of the earlier Medieval Warm Period, Europe's population may have doubled. But in the mid-17th century demographic growth stopped and in some areas fell, in part due to the reduced crop yields caused by climate change. Bread prices doubled and then quintupled and hunger weakened the population. The Italian historian Majolino Bisaccioni suggested that the wave of bad weather and revolutions might be due to the influence of the stars. But the Jesuit astronomer Giovanni Battista Riccioli speculated that fluctuations in the number of sunspots might be to blame, for he had noticed they were absent.

Looking back through sunspot records reveals many periods when the Sun's activity was high and low and in general they are related to warm and cool climatic periods. As well as the Little Ice Age, there was the weak Sun and the cold Iron Age, the active sun and the warm Bronze Age. Scientists cannot readily explain how the Sun's activity affects the Earth but it is an observational correlation that the Sun's moods have a climatic effect on the Earth.

Today's climate change consensus is that man-made greenhouse gases are warming the world and that we must act to curb them to reduce the projected temperature increase estimated at probably between 1.8C and 4.0C by the century's end. But throughout the 20th century, solar cycles had been increasing in strength. Almost everyone agrees that throughout most of the last century the solar influence was significant. Studies show that by the end of the 20th century the Sun's activity may have been at its highest for more than 8,000 years. Other solar parameters have been changing as well, such as the magnetic field the Sun sheds, which has almost doubled in the past century. But then things turned. In only the past decade or so the Sun has started a decline in activity, and the lateness of cycle 24 is an indicator.

Astronomers are watching the Sun, hoping to see the first stirrings of cycle 24. It should have arrived last December. The United States' National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration predicted it would start in March 2007. Now they estimate March 2008, but they will soon have to make that even later. The first indications that the Sun is emerging from its current sunspot minimum will be the appearance of small spots at high latitude. They usually occur some 12-20 months before the start of a new cycle. These spots haven't appeared yet so cycle 24 will probably not begin to take place until 2009 at the earliest. The longer we have to wait for cycle 24, the weaker it is likely to be. Such behaviour is usually followed by cooler temperatures on Earth.

The past decade has been warmer than previous ones. It is the result of a rapid increase in global temperature between 1978 and 1998. Since then average temperatures have held at a high, though steady, level. Many computer climate projections suggest that the global temperatures will start to rise again in a few years. But those projections do not take into account the change in the Sun's behaviour. The tardiness of cycle 24 indicates that we might be entering a period of low solar activity that may counteract man-made greenhouse temperature increases. Some members of the Russian Academy of Sciences say we may be at the start of a period like that seen between 1790 and 1820, a minor decline in solar activity called the Dalton Minimum. They estimate that the Sun's reduced activity may cause a global temperature drop of 1.5C by 2020. This is larger than most sensible predictions of man-made global warming over this period.

It's something we must take seriously because what happened in the 17th century is bound to happen again some time. Recent work studying the periods when our Sun loses its sunspots, along with data on other Sun-like stars that may be behaving in the same way, suggests that our Sun may spend between 10 and 25 per cent of the time in this state. Perhaps the lateness of cycle 24 might even be the start of another Little Ice Age. If so, then our Sun might come to our rescue over climate change, mitigating mankind's influence and allowing us more time to act. It might even be the case that the Earth's response to low solar activity will overturn many of our assumptions about man's influence on climate change. We don't know. We must keep watching the sun.

Dr David Whitehouse is an astronomer and the author of 'The Sun: A Biography' (John Wiley, 2004)

Seasons of the Sun

Modern Solar Minimum

Modern Climate Optimum
(1890-2000) - the world is getting warmer. Concentrations of greenhouse gas increase. Solar activity increases.

Dalton Solar Minimum
(1790-1820) - global temperatures are lower than average.

Maunder Solar Minimum
(1645-1715) - coincident with the 'Little Ice Age'.

Sprer Solar Minimum
(1420-1530) - discovered by the analysis of radioactive carbon in tree rings that correlate with solar activity - colder weather. Greenland settlements abandoned.

Wolf Solar Minimum
(1280-1340) - climate deterioration begins. Life gets harder in Greenland.

Medieval Solar Maximum
(1075-1240) - coincides with Medieval Warm Period. Vikings from Norway and Iceland found settlements in Greenland and North America.

Oort Solar Minimum
(1010-1050) - temperature on Earth is colder than average.

There seem to have been 18 sunspot minima periods in the last 8,000 years; studies indicate that the Sun currently spends up to a quarter of its time in these minima.

http://www.solarcycle24. com/

The Great Frost of 1683:

--- --- ---


Blogg um lkt efni:

Byltingarkennd kenning dansks vsindamanns skekur vsindaheiminn...

Mun slin kla okkur svo um munar innan frra ra?

ldur aldanna. Sjaldan er ein bran stk - einnig veurfari?


The Past and Future Climate. Skyggnur fr erindi David Archibald sem flutt var vegum Lavoisier Group nylega. "In this presentation, I will put forward a prediction of climate to 2030 that differs from most in the public domain. It is a prediction of imminent cooling. And it is a prediction that you will be able to check up on every day..."

Sasta frsla | Nsta frsla


1 Smmynd: Valdimar Samelsson

Takk g grein og r er alveg hgt a tra essu. a er margsanna a a hefir engin hlnun veri mrg r. a hefir veri snt fram a hita mlar sem hafa veri notair og settir upp essum tilgang fyrir mrgum rum ti gusgrnni nttrunni eru um a vera innlyksa borgum og bjum ar sem hitamyndun er umfljanleg . Amerkanar viurkenna ekki etta grnhsarhp en eir hafa notast vi gervihnatta hitamlingar um langt skei. Lttu bara hitamlin hj r:-)

Valdimar Samelsson, 8.12.2007 kl. 16:28

2 Smmynd: Geir gstsson

Af hverju segir "bjarga fr" hlnun? g veit ekki hvernig landsnmsmennirnir hefu tt a lifa af ef sland hefi ekki veri nokkru heitara en a er dag me kornrkt Suurlandi og tigangi saufjr meira og minna allt ri. Blmaskei Maya og Inka var einnig tmabili sem var mun heitara en vi sjum dag.

Nr vri a segja a slin tti a strauka virkni sna til a lta ll markmi um CO2-minnkun falla um sig sjlf (sem a vsu mundi bara styrkja hina vinstrisinnuu umhverfisverndarhreyfingu og vsinda-grmubning hennar).

Geir gstsson, 8.12.2007 kl. 16:55

3 Smmynd: Valdimar Samelsson

Oort Solar Minimum
(1010-1050) - temperature on Earth is colder than average. essi Minimum gti hafa veri orsk fyrir v a orfinnur Karlsefni htti bsetu Norur Amerku. a herif engin vilja hlusta essa Dnsku en eir eru essari lnu a a s slargeislarnir sem framleia gufu sem er 95% orsakavaldur grnhsa ea hitun lofthjp okkar.

Valdimar Samelsson, 8.12.2007 kl. 17:18

4 Smmynd: Emil Hannes Valgeirsson

a er gtt a f frttir af v sem er a gerast slinni og gst stendur sig vel v. a er mjg sennilegt a slin hafi tt stran tt hitasveiflum fortinni og hn mun sjlfsagt setja sitt mark framtina einnig. En eitt tilokar ekki anna eins og mr finnst sumir halda. Saukinn tblstur C02 af mannavldum stular smm saman a hlnun og leggst ofan r sveiflur sem slin og arir nttrulegir ttir valda. Jafnvel tt klni eitthva nsta ratug af vldum slarinnar arf a alls ekki a a kenningin um aukin grurhsahrif af mannavldum s rng. Ef eitthva mun draga r slvirkninni eru a gtis frttir v a tti a gefa okkur aukin tma til a klst vi tblstursvandann (sem sumir virast afneita af plitskum stum).

Svo vil g benda gtis grein hrna fyrir sem halda a a s ekkert a marka hnattrnar hitamlingar. ar er fjallar um vsindamann hj NASA sem hefur stunda slkar mlingar en ar er einmitt mjg mikil hersla lg a leirtta elilega hitaaukningu borgum. Einnig koma arna fram hugaverar vangaveltur um hitasveiflur og srstaklega hrif stmengunar hitafar.

Emil Hannes Valgeirsson, 8.12.2007 kl. 17:52

5 Smmynd: sds Sigurardttir

hugavert, g var einmitt me sm umfjllun minni su um a a bandarkjamenn vilja ekki taka of mikinn tt essu. Spennandi grein sem birtir hr.

sds Sigurardttir, 8.12.2007 kl. 19:42

6 identicon


Mig langai n bara benda nokkur atrii sambandi vi umrdda grein. a er lklegt a "suncycle 24" hafi hafist 1. jl 2006, sbr.

a er heldur ekkert hyggjuefni tt slin hafi veri fremur rleg undanfarna mnui/r enda er virkni slarinnar lgmarki mia vi 11 ra hringrs sna mill lgmarka. Sasta hmark var 2001 og nsta hmark er sp um 2010-2012 og v ekkert elilegt a ar milli s lgmark. Raunar er ekkert ntt a slin fylgi ekki essum sveiflum nkvmlega og m nefna a strsti mldi slstrkur var 4. nv 2003 og kom fremur flatt upp vsindamenn, sj

og einnig frtt (eftir sama hfund og umrdd grein, Dr David Whitehouse)

San m nefna a "suncycle 24" er sp a veri einn mesta raskei slinni langan tma og slstormar veri me versta mti, sj

Dikpati, M., G. De Toma, and P. A. Gilman (2006), Predicting the strength of solar cycle 24 using a flux-transport dynamo-based tool, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L05102, doi:10.1029/2005GL025221.

a m lesa frtt um essa grein hr

ar er jafnframt vitna vsindamann NASA David Hathaway (s sami og vitna er til umrddri grein) sem segir:

"History shows that big sunspot cycles 'ramp up' faster than small ones," he says.

sem er beinni mtsgn vi eftirfarnadi mlsgrein ( 8. efnisgrein umrddrar greinar)

"The longer we have to wait for cycle 24, the weaker it is likely to be."

Raunar tilvitnunin David Hathaway meira vi um "suncycle 25" sem mun ekki n hmarki snu fyrr en 2022 og hann segir a veri einn s rlegasti um aldir, sbr.

Af lestri greinarinnar m tla a undanfarna ratugi hafi slin veri venju virk og a hafi valdi verulegum hluta af eirri hlnun sem sj m andrmslofti jarar og um essar mundir sum vi a halda inn langt skei mjg lgrar slvirkni sem muni svo aftur kla andrmsloft jarar. a er gefi skyn a a s essi sveifla sem s helsti orsakavaldur hnatthlnunnar. En hafa verur huga a a er ekkert sem bendir til a essi niursveifla s nsta leiti. Raunar er a.m.k. ratugur a vi gtum s fyrstu merki um lgri virkni slinni og gtu ratugir lii anga til hrifana fri a gta andrmslofti jaar.

Vissulega m benda virkni slar virist vera venju mikil sustu 70 r, sbr.

sem er byggt ggnum sem m sj

en ar segir einnig

"Although the rarity of the current episode of high average sunspot numbers may indicate that the Sun has contributed to the unusual climate change during the twentieth century, we point out that solar variability is unlikely to have been the dominant cause of the strong warming during the past three decades."

Samkvmt essu er ekki lklegt a slin s helsti orsakavaldur hnatthlnunnar. Raunar verur vandaml hnatthlnunnar ekkert minna akallandi tt hgt s a kenna slinni a mestu leyti um nlega hnatthlnun. Skringin er s a a er ekkert sem mannkyni getur gert til a hafa hrif slvirkni. En mannkyni getur haft hrif lofthjp jarar og raunar myndi etta a a a vri enn mikilvgara enn ur a reyna a minnka grurhsalofttegundir andrmsloftinu til ess a vega mti hrifum slarinnar. Hafa ber huga a a er hafi yfir allan vafa a magn grurhsaloftteguna hefur hrif hitastig jarar (plnetan Venus er skrt dmi), a er bara ekki vita nkvmlega hve mikil au hrif eru. Hvort sem aukin slvirkni er helsti orsakavaldur hnatthlnunnar ea einungis veigamikill ttur er a ekkert nema skhyggja a tla a vi sum einmitt um essar mundir a fara inn skei lgri slvirkni sem muni kla jrina n.

Inglfur gstsson (IP-tala skr) 8.12.2007 kl. 20:24

7 Smmynd: Valdimar Samelsson

ar sem etta er til umru .e. lofttegundir sem hafa hrif hlnun jarar. a er alltaf tala um gas. Er ekki allmennt skoun a 95% a essum lofdtegundum er vatn/gufa. a virist aldrei minnst vatn essum tilfellum. Hefi gaman ef eingver segi sitt lit v hr. V

Valdimar Samelsson, 8.12.2007 kl. 21:06

8 Smmynd: Mara Kristjnsdttir

Takk fyrir essar upplsingar.

Mara Kristjnsdttir, 9.12.2007 kl. 00:30

9 Smmynd: gst H Bjarnason

etta eru skemmtilegar umrur sem hafa spunnist hr.

Geir spyr "af hverju segir "bjarga fr hlnun"?". a er miki til essu. Hve mikil hefur essi hlnun veri sustu 100 rum? Ekki meiri en 0,7C, og a er summan af hlnun af nttrunnar vldum og af vldum manna. Fyrirsgnin bloggpistlinum er lausleg ing fyrisgn greinarinnar The Independent, .e. "Ray of hope: Can the sun save us from global warming?". Sjlfur s g ekki mikla httu hlnuninni sem orin er.

a verur frlegt a fylgjast me essum hitaferli nstu rum. Ferillinn snir hitastig jarar sustu 30 rin fram a desember 2007. Sem sagt splunkunjar tlur. a er ekki a sj a miki hafi hlna undanfrnum rum, en er ferillinn farinn a stefna niur vi? Of snemmt er er fullyra nokku, en hva snist mnnum?

gst H Bjarnason, 9.12.2007 kl. 13:49

10 identicon

Hr ar lka hugavert graf.

Gummi (IP-tala skr) 10.12.2007 kl. 20:42

11 identicon

Sll gst og takk fyrir einstaklega ga umfjllun um gagnrni "global warming" tt a mr finnist oft a vantar mtrkin aalgreinarnar hj r en a er vst ng af eim hinga og anga um vefinn.

Vildi bara benda r a treysta ekki um of a sem lest junkscience (sem tekur eitt graf t r og finnst hugavert), ar er maur a nafni Steven Milloy a verki sem er svona einskonar Nick Naylor (hfupersnan bkinni Thank you for smoking) fyrir mis mlefni nema hann fr ekki beint borga fyrir sna ttku. g myndi velja framsetningu ggnum SSM/I og NOAA hj ranlegri ailum en honum. a er nefnilega oft hgt a setja ggn fram margan mta til a lta au hefja einn mlsta hrra en hann skili t fr ggnunum.

lafur Sigursson (IP-tala skr) 11.12.2007 kl. 04:35

12 Smmynd: gst H Bjarnason

Sll lafur

stan fyrir v a g vel grafi fr sunni Junkscience - Global warming at a glance
er a ar er fjldi ferla sem plottaur er sjlfvirkt beint r heimildum sem geti er. Frumheimildar er geti og auvelt a sannreyna hvort ferlarnir su rttir. ferlinum sem g vsai eru efst sndar tr vefslir nnur fyrir hitaferilinn og hin fyrir CO2 ferilinn. g hef stundum fari beint frumheimildina og plotta sjlfur ferla, eins og t.d. m sj hr og hr. essu tilviki var g a spara mr vinnu, en ferillinn hefi ori eins, tliti hefi veri anna.

g er annars sammla r varandi suna A sjlfsgu er hn ekki traust heimild sem slk. Alltaf verur a sannreyna frumheimildir.

gst H Bjarnason, 11.12.2007 kl. 06:57

13 Smmynd: Finnur Hrafn Jnsson

g hef fylgst me Junkscience nokkur undanfarin r. Milloy er langt fr v a vera hlutlaus, srstaklega efnisvali og hann getur veri mjg vginn umfjllun um einstaklinga sem honum finnst ekki koma heiarlega fram.

g hef nokkrum sinnum fari frumheimildir sem hann vsar en g hef aldrei stai hann a v a fara rangt me ea sna upp ggnin til a rkstyja einhverja skoun. En ef menn eru a kvarta undan skorti hlutleysi hj honum hva m segja um ess sbylju hlnunarsinna sem dynur okkur daglega.

Einhver nefndi a sennilega vri slin ekki orsakavaldur hnatthlnunar. Hva olli hitasveiflum jrinni fyrir inbyltingu? Finnst einhverjum lklegt a hn hafi valdi miklum hitasveiflum fram a inbyltingu og san alveg dregi sig hl? Er til eitthva ekkt stand jarsgunni ar sem hitinn var ekki a sveiflast?

Finnur Hrafn Jnsson, 12.12.2007 kl. 00:02

14 identicon

H. a er vissulega rtt a slin hefur hrif veurfar jarar en a er lklegt a slin s orsakavaldur hnatthlnunar undafarna tvo ratugi sbr.

grip eirrar greinar er eftirfarandi

"There is considerable evidence for solar influence on the Earth’s pre-industrial climate and the Sun may well have been a factor in post-industrial climate change in the first half of the last century. Here we show that over the past 20 years, all the trends in the Sun that could have had an influence on the Earth’s climate have been in the opposite direction to that required to explain the observed rise in global mean temperatures."

sem stuttu mli tleggst a vissulega hafi slin haft hrif veurfar jarar fyrir daga inbyltingarinnar og jafnvel fram undir mija sustu ld. En hegun slar undanfarna tvo ratugi er ll vegu a vega mti breytingum veufari jarar sem birtast okkur hkkandi hitastigi.

Einnig m lesa samantekt essarar greinar

"Our results show that the observed rapid rise in global mean temperatures seen after 1985 cannot be ascribed to solar variability, whichever of the mechanisms is invoked and no matter how much the solar variation is amplified."

sem tleggst a niurstur eirra bendi til a hkkandi hitastig eftir 1985 s ekki hgt a skrifa breytingar hegun slar og skiptir ekki hvernig slk hrif ttu a birtast n hve miki breytileyki slar er ktur.

egar s og er hamra v a a s aukning grurhsalofttegunda sem valdi hnatthlnun er kannski vert a hafa huga a ar er tt vi a aukning grurhsalofttegunda andrmslofinu s veigamesti ttur hlnun undafarna ratugi. a er engan veginn svo a ekki su arir ttir sem komi vi sgu. Vandamli er a sumir essara tta eru svo flknir a elisfari a ntma veurfarslkn eiga erfitt me a taka tilhlilegt tillit til eirra. Hafa ber huga a ekking vsindamanna run veurfars eru takmrk sett. au reiknilkn sem byggt er spm um run veurfars taka stugt framfrum, en ekki m gleyma a a er "erfitt a sp, srstaklega um framtina".

A lokum langar mig a benda athyglisveran fyrirlestur eftir elisfringinn Freeman Dyson ar sem hann kemur m.a. inn hnatthlnun og httuna v a blsa vandamli r llu samhengi enda s etta fremur viranlegur vandi:

"intelligent land-management could increase the growth of the topsoil reservoir by four billion tons of carbon per year, the amount needed to stop the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere"


og fyrir sem vilja fremur heyra hfundinn sjlfan flytja ennan fyrirlestur

Inglfur gstsson (IP-tala skr) 12.12.2007 kl. 07:15

15 Smmynd: Loftur Altice orsteinsson

akka r gst fyrir a benda mr essa hugaveru grein eftir David Whitehouse.

g hef veri upptekinn a undanfrnu og ekki fari inn suna na reglulega.

Beztu skir um gfurkt r.

Loftur Altice orsteinsson, 31.12.2007 kl. 17:51

Bta vi athugasemd

Ekki er lengur hgt a skrifa athugasemdir vi frsluna, ar sem tmamrk athugasemdir eru liin.


Ágúst H Bjarnason
Ágúst H Bjarnason

Verkfr. hjá Verkís.

Audiatur et altera pars

Aðeins málefnalegar athugasemdir, sem eiga ótvíætt við efni viðkomandi pistils, og skrifaðar án skætings og neikvæðni í garð annarra, og að jafnaði undir fullu nafni, verða birtar. 

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